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212 terms

Anatomy Final

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renal/true capsule
internal capsule of kidney
renal fascia
external capsule of kidney
pyramids
8-18 structures with collecting ducts that constitute medulla of kidney
renal pelvis
collects urine and is located in renal sinus of cavity of kidney
renal column
part of cortex between pyramids
renal artery
circulates dirty blood (w/ metabolic waste) to kidney
renal vein
circulates cleansed blood from kidney
ureter
drain urine from kidneys to bladder
interlobar artery
give rise to afferent arteriole
afferent arteriole
circulates blood to glomerulus
golmerular capillaries
capillaries enclosed in Bowman's capsule/renal corpuscle
efferent arteriole
circulates blood away from glomerulus
peritubular capillary network
capillaries in contact with the kidney tubule
interlobar vein
drains peritubular capillary network
Bowman's capsule/renal corpuscle
proximal end of kidney tubule containing the glomerulus
Henle's loop
long loop into medulla between proximal and distal convoluted portions of kidney tubule
distal convoluted tubule
adjacent to the collecting duct
collecting duct
in pyramids and not part of the kidney tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
adjacent to Bowman's capsule
ureteral orifices
openings where ureter opens into posterior wall of bladder
trigone
internal triangular area in bladder from ureteral openings to urethra
rugae
internal folds in wall of bladder; most apparent when bladder is empty
detrusor muscle
three layers of smooth muscle in wall of bladder
urethral canal
lumen of urethra that drains urine from bladder in male and female, and semen from reproductive system in male
int. and ext. urethral sphincters
circular bands of muscle that close off the urethral canal
urethra
tubular structure from bladder to outside of body
filtration
water and most solutes in blood plasma move across wall of glomerular capillaries into Bowman's capsule and then into the renal tubule; driving force is blood pressure
tubular reabsorption
return of 99% of filtered water and many useful solutes from renal tubules into peritubular capillary network
tubular secretion
nitrogenous waste (urea), drugs, and ions from blood into distal renal tubules; allows someone to be tested for drug use
spermatic cord
includes ductus (vas) deferens, artery, vein, lymphatics, and nerves
inguinal canal
allows spermatic cord to extend from body cavity to scrotum (opening)
ductus (vas) deferens
transports semen containing sperm cells from testes to ejaculatory duct
efferent ducts
vas efferentia; drain semen from rete testes
inguinal hernia
tear in inguinal canal
kidney
regulation of pH, blood volume, and water regulation; removal of waste products from blood
kidney stone
rock like substance that starts in pelvis of kidney and travels down ureters and get stuck; severe pain w/ pink pee
urinary system
removal of urine
bladder
starts working at involuntary level until we train it once we are older
nephron
100,000 per kidney; basic unit of function of kidney; 2 kinds, juxtamedullary and cortical
erection
caused by hydrostatic pressure of blood or nervous response
circumcision
removal of prepuce/foreskin
conception/fertilization
egg penetrated by sperm cell
rete testis
interconnected tubules between straight ducts and efferent ducts
straight ducts
between seminiferous tubules and rete testis
seminiferous tubules
sites of sperm cell production
tunica albuginea
tough external fibrous coat of testis
septum
partition between the 200-300 lobules containing seminiferous tubules
lobules
contain seminiferous tubules
spermatogenesis
meiotic production of sperm/spermatozoa; 23 chromosomes-haploid
meiosis
reduction division process involved in spermatogenesis
head of sperm
contains the nucleus
tail of sperm
long whip-like flagellum
acrosome of sperm
protects the end of the head
nucleus of sperm
contains haploid set of 23 chromosomes in sperm
seminal vesicle
male sex gland duct that contribute to the ejaculatory duct
ampulla of ductus (vas) deferens
enlargement of the structure near the ejaculatory duct; expansion of ductus (vas) deferens
bulbourethral gland
Cowper's gland; smallest and most distal of male sex glands
ejaculatory duct
consist of union of ducts of seminal vesicles and ductus deferens
corpus spongiosum
longitudinal column of tissue containing the male urethra
corpus cavernosum
the two upper longitudinal columns of tissue in the penis
prostatic urethra
urethra surrounded by prostate
membranous urethra
between prostatic and spongy urethra
spongy urethra
urethra that extends the length of the penis
corona of glans penis
enlarged part of glans penis
external urethral meatus
terminal opening of urethra
glans penis
the "head" of the penis
foreskin/prepuce
retractable covering of glans penis removed in circumcision
hilum
where arteries, veins, lymphatics, and nerves either enter or exit from ovary
germinal epithelium
external cell layer of the ovary
developing follicle
site of development of an egg/secondary oocyte
ovulation of egg
usually on 14th day of 28 day menstrual cycle
corpus luteum
secretes the hormone progesterone; yellowish mass
oogenesis
meiotic production of eggs; 1n=23 chromosomes=haploid
reproductive organs
function to produce eggs/sperm (gametes), produce hormones, and bond males and females
atresia
change in a follicle that renders it nonfunctional
menopause
phase women go through that makes them unable to produce fertilized oocytes
functions of vagina
birth canal, outlet for menstrual fluid, reproductive organ that receives the penis
parturition
birth
primary sex characteristics
reproductive organs
secondary sex characteristics
developed in puberty; skin texture, body shape, hair
autonomic nervous system
keeps urine and semen separate in males because both flow through urethra
fimbriae
finger like projections from end of uterine tube
infundibulum
expanded part of uterine tube to which fimbriae are attached
ampulla
slightly dialated part of uterine tube
fallopian tube
uterine tube/oviduct; site of fertilization; where egg meets sperm
isthmus
narrowing of uterine tube at its junction with uterus
fundus
elevated part of uterus between the uterine tubes; gross anatomical subdivision of uterus
body of uterus
between the fundus and cervix of uterus; gross anatomical subdivision of uterus
cervix
inferior outlet of uterus; gross anatomical subdivision of uterus
perimetrium of uterus
external peritoneal investment; histological component; covers
myometrium of uterus
middle smooth muscle; histological component; labor contractions
endometrium of uterus
internal layer= lining shed during menstrual cycle; histological component
vulva
external genitalia of female mons pubis
clitoris
homologous to penis of male
labia majora
external folds of vulva; homologous to scrotum of male
labia minora
internal folds of vulva
vaginal orifice
entrance to copulatory organ and birth canal; exit for menstrual flow
hymen
partially covers vaginal orifice
mons pubis
anterior to pubic symphysis with growth of pubic hair
anus
part of digestive system
external urethral orifice
part of urinary system
mammary gland
can be historically associated to a milk line that has accumulated in pectoral region over time
lobule with alveoli
site of milk production
parts of milk drainage system
mammary duct, lactiferous sinus, and lactiferous duct
nipple
surrounded by pigmented areola
adipose tissue
part of substance and bulk of mammary gland; size of breast dependent on this
pituitary gland
hypophysis; master endocrine gland; attached to hypothalamus
thyroid
lobes on both sides of thyroid cartilage
parathyroid glands
embedded in the thyroid gland
thymus gland
superior to heart; regresses in size with age; primary lymphatic organ
adrenal gland
superior to each kidney; suprarenal gland
ovaries
egg and hormone production
testes
sperm and hormone production
pancreas
produces insulin in islets of Langerhans
retroperitoneal
location of kidneys; posterior to peritoneum
adipose/fatty capsule
middle capsule of kidney
8 to 18
number of pyramids per human kidney; makes it multilobar
1
number of pyramids per cat kidney; makes it unilobar
cortex and medulla
regions of kidney
about 1 million
number of nephrons in each kidney
cortical nephrons
80-85%
juxtamedullary nephrons
15-20%
renal sinus/cavity
location of renal pelvis in kidney
collection of urine
function of renal pelvis
major and minor calyces
subdivisions of renal pelvis
dialysis
machine treatment protocol in cases of kidney failure
micturition
controlled release of urine from bladder; controlled by sphincter muscles around wall of urethra
abdominal cavity near kidneys
where the testes begin development in a male
7th month of development
when the testes descend from the abdominal cavity to the scrotum
inguinal canal
between abdominal cavity and scrotal sac through which testes descend
cryptorchidism
failure of one or more testes to descend through inguinal canal
scrotum
sac-like extension of the body wall containing testes
external/median raphe
external edidence that scrotal sac represents fused halves
function of scrotum
provides lower temperature environment for sperm than body cavity
spermatogenesis by meiosis
sperm cell production
300 million
number of sperm produced per day in some males
cause of erection
nervous response to appropriate stimuli
emission
release of a small quantity of semen prior to ejaculation
ejaculation
powerful surge of semen from the urethra by muscle contractions
orgasm
pleasurable sensation that accompanies ejaculation
interstitial cells
Leydig cells; between the seminiferous tubules; cells in testes that produce testosterone
puberty
development of secondary sex characteristics and reproductive maturity
sex drive
urge to achieve sexual gratification
vasectomy
cutting through the ductus (vas) deferens to prevent ejaculation of semen
semen
seminal fluid; mixture of sperm cels/spermatozoa and sex gland secretions
abdominal cavity near kidneys
where ovaries develop in female
follicle in ovary
specific site of oogenesis/egg production
fallopian tube
site of fertilization; uterine tube
release of 2nd polar body
initial result of a sperm cell penetrating a secondary oocyte
fertilization and fusion of sperm and egg
final result of sperm cell penetrating an egg
oogenesis by meiosis
egg/ova production
1 egg
number of eggs typically produced in a 28 day menstrual cycle
female orgasm
pleasurable sensation that does not tie to ovulation
growing follicles
structure that produces estrogen
puberty
development of secondary sex characteristics and reproductive maturity (early as 7)
corpus luteum
produces progesterone in a follicle after ovulation
urination
function of the female urethra; micturition
infundibulum
trumpet-like end of the uterine tube
fimbriae
finger-like projections from the infundibulum
prepuce/foreskin
structure that partially covers the clitoris
tubal ligation
manipulating the uterine tubes so that egg and sperm can not meet
estrous cycle
reproductive cycle in a cat or horse
estrus/heat
part of estrous cycle when female is receptive to males
wall of uterus
site of implantation of zygote/fertilized egg
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
spinal cord
includes foramen magnum and medulla oblongata to near second lumbar vertebra
peripheral nervous system
12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
cranial nerves
12 pairs (24 total) mainly innervate special sense organs; touch, sight, smell, etc.
spinal nerves
31 pairs (62 total) innervate structures in area where they branch off of the spine
autonomic nervous system
could be included in the peripheral nervous system; innervates organs with smooth muscle and/or glandular tissue
sympathetic
thoracolumbar subdivision; part of autonomic nervous system
parasympathetic
craniosacral subdivision; part of autonomic nervous system
neuroglia
non-conducting support cells of the nervous system (glial cells)
neurons
impulse conducting cells of the nervous system
impulses
electrical disturbances conducted by neurons
stimuli
internal or external environmental changes detectable by the organism
innervation
nerve supply to a structure
unipolar neuron
cell body and one axon; classified based on structure
bipolar neuron
one dendrite, one cell body, one axon; classified based on structure
multipolar neuron
many dendrites, a cell body, one axon (most common type); classified based on structure
sensory neuron
conduct impulses from receptors to central nervous system; based on function
internuncial neuron
association-conduction impulses within CNS; based on function
motor neuron
conduct impulses from CNS to effectors/muscles
reflex arc
finger prick; tapping knee; involuntary responses
brain
center for registering sensations, correlating them with one another and with stored information, making decisions, and taking actions. Also center for intellect, emotions, behavior, and memory
cranial meninges
surround and protect the brain; include internal pia mater, middle arachnoid, and external dura mater
blood-brain barrier
protects brain cells from harmful substances and pathogens by preventing passage of many substances from blood to brain tissue/cells
cerebrospinal fluid
internal hydrostatic pressure protects the brain and spinal cord against chemical and physical injuries; four ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord filled with this
hydrocephalic
water on the brain; requires surgery
medulla oblongata
continuous with spinal cord and has ascending and descending fiber tracts
decussation
crossing of right and left fiber tracts
thalamus
oval structure above the midbrain that is mostly gray matter; major relay station for sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex from the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, and parts of the cerebrum
hypothalamus
integrates and controls the relationship between nervous and endocrine systems by the autonomic nervous system; floor and lateral walls of the third ventricle; receives information from the external environment originating in peripheral sense organs; attached to pituitary gland by infundibulum
cerebrum
largest part of brain; responsible for memory and reasoning
cerebrum
amount of gray matter in this sets humans apart from all other organisms
sulci
fissures/grooves
gyri
convolutions
great longitudinal fissure
separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres
corpus callosum
white matter that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
insula
fifth lobe of the brain located internally to all other lobes
postcentral gyrus
sensory projection area; receives sensory impulses from the opposite side of the body; located posterior to the central sulcus in each hemisphere
precentral gyrus
motor projection area; sends motor impulses to the opposite side of the body; located anterior to the central sulcus in each hemisphere
vermis
central constricted part of cerebellum (worm like)
hemispheres
located on either side of the vermis of the cerebellum
cortex
surface of the cerebellum with folds
white matter
internal to folds of cerebellum
arbor vitae
internal pattern of folds of the cerebellum; tree of life in the old days
eyes
visual sense
ears
auditory sense
olfactory epithelium of nose
olfactory sense
taste buds of tongue
gustatory sense
head
area where special sense organs are located