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AP Comparative Politics Unit One Review Questions
Terms in this set (36)
Explain the importance of studying comparative politics and how it differs from the study of International Relations
To better understand how different governments operate and how they compare. International
Describe why institutions are important when studying comparative politics
They are the different parts of the government that control how things get processed.
Describe the difference between empirical and normative research
Empirical is based off of observation while normative is numbers.
Identify the difference between a dependent and independent variable
The independent changes while the dependent changes based off of what the independent is.
Explain the difference between correlation and causation
Correlation is going the same way but unknown why. Causation causes them to go opposite or the same way.
Define and explain the relationship between states, nations, regimes, governments, and countries
States and countries. are the defined territory with the right to rule. Nation is people with a common interest or background. Regime is a change in leadership. Government is the institutions that run the country.
Define sovereignty and explain how it is related to the existence of the state
Sovereignty is the right to rule as a government.
Differentiate between the different types of regimes (authoritarian, democratic, theocratic, etc)
Authoritarian - One group with all authority
Democratic - People elect the officials
Theocratic - The government is ruled by a religious court
Define political legitimacy and list three sources of political legitimacy
The legitimacy is the people how they think the gov has a right to rule. Media, linkage institutions, and elections
Differentiate between levels of government (supranational/unitary/confederal/federal) and understand key differences
Supranational - Multiple nations
Unitary - Central gov with all power
Confederal - Subunits have all power
Federal - Central gov has power and subunits have power
Distinguish between decentralization in federal governments and unitary governments
Decentralization is still unitary but giving some powers to the subunits, while federal the subunits already have the power
Identify key institutions commonly found in governments and their roles
Legislature, judiciary, and executive
Distinguish between the roles of head of state and head of government
Head of state is mostly figurative and government is the real leader
Distinguish between parliamentary and presidential forms of democracy
Parliament is PR and they choose from the leading party to be the PM. President is directly elected.
Define bureaucracy and explain the differences between bureaucracy in authoritarian and democratic regimes
The bureaucracy is much stronger in an authoritarian regime because the officials are less likely to be elected anyway
Explain the major differences between First-Past-the Post (Plurality) and Proportional Representation electoral systems
First past the post is the one who gets the most votes wins while PR is the % of votes you get is the number of seats you get.
Differentiate between referendum/plebiscite/initiative
Referendum - vote on policy
Plebiscite - gauge public opinion
Initiative - policy imprinted by people
Define linkage institution and identify 3 examples
Connect the people with the government. Media, interest groups, and political parties
Distinguish between political parties and interest groups
Interest groups aren't directly involved with politics
Distinguish between pluralist interest groups and corporatist interest groups
Pluralist - spread power
Corporatist - few compete for sector
Define social cleavages and describe the major bases for cleavages within a state
Social cleavages are factors that separate groups. Religion and ethnicity
Differentiate between cross-cutting and coinciding cleavages
Cross cutting are differences but still have similarities. Coinciding are no similarities.
Describe how transparency effects the political culture of a state
Transparency increases the legitimacy and trust the people have in the state, therefore creating a positive political culture
Identify main beliefs of each major political ideology
Liberal - economic and individual freedom
Communism - one class all equal
Socialism - mix of capitalism and communism
Facism - runs on inequality
Religion - runs on a religion
Describe types of political participation in both democratic and authoritarian regimes and explain how they differ
Political culture in a democracy has to be active in order to work but in an authoritarian regime it is the opposite
Define civil society and give a local, national and global example of a civil society organization
Civil Society - the political climate in a society. Local: community groups. National: elections
Explain the role of media in the relationship of the citizens and the state and identify levels of press freedom in AP6
Media has a large role in with the state since it can give information freely or constrict it
Explain theories of economic development, including Modernization (Westernization Model) Theory and Dependency
Modernization is the economic growth affects the people. Dependency depends on the people.
Describe one defining characteristic of a command economy and describe one defining characteristic of a market economy
Command is what is needed is produced and is gov owned. Market is more free.
Define fragmentation and identify factors contributing to it
Being broken up into different sections. More deep dividing lines
Define globalization and identify factors contributing to it
Globalization is the interconnection between countries. International trade
Define public policy
Policy that will affect the people
Define civil liberties and explain the Freedom House rating
Civil liberties are what the people are free to do. Free house rating is how free it is.
Explain the major components included in the Human Development Index
How well the health, education, and living is.
Explain the difference between GDP/GNP/PPP
GDP is within boarders, GNP is everywhere, and PPP is one local area
Explain what the Gini coefficient measures
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