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14 terms

Chapter 1

The Old Regime and the Enlightenment
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absolute monarchy
Unrestrained power. Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries
old regime/ancien regime
The Political and Social system that existed in France before the French Revolution
monarchy
state ruled over by a single person, as a king or queen
divine right
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
constitutional monarchy
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
mercantilism
increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institution
social contract
the idea that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will
The Wealth of the Nations
written by Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics
laissez faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
philosphes
thinkers of the Enlightenment
liberalism
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property.
socialism
a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
communism
an economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions