Biology Chapter 4- A Tour Of The Cell

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Name the parts of a prokaryotic cellFimbriae, ribosomes, nucleoid, plasma membrane, cell wall, capsule, flagella, bacterial chromosomeDefine organelles("little organs"), which perform specific tasks. Just as the cell itself is wrapped in a membrane made of phospholipids and proteins that perform various functions, each organelle is bounded by a membrane with a lipid and protein composition that suits its function.what are the 4 groups of organellesGenetic control, Manufacture, distribution & breakdown of molecules, Energy processing, Structural support, movement & communicationWhich organelles are in the genetic control groupThe nucleus and ribosomesWhich organelles are in the manufacture, distribution, and breakdown of molecules groupendoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and peroxisomesWhich organelles are in the Energy processing groupMitochondria in animal cells and chloroplasts in plant cellsWhich organelles are in the Structural support, movement & communication groupcytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and plant cell wallwhat is only in an animal celllysosomes and centrosomeswhat is the nucleus's functioncontains the cell's genetic instructions encoded in DNAWhat is the chromatin's functionappears as a diffuse mass within the nucleuswhat is the nuclear envelope's functiontwo membranes is a separate phospholipid bilayer with associated proteins. Similar in function to the plasma membrane, the nuclear envelope controls the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus.what is the Nucleolus's functiona prominent structure in the nucleus, is the site where a special type of RNA called ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is synthesized according to instructions in the DNA.What is the location of the Free ribosomes and what is their protein's functionFree ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol; function within the cytosol; examples are enzymes that catalyze the first steps of sugar breakdown for cellular respirationWhat is the location of the Bound ribosomes and what is their protein's functionbound ribosomes are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope;exported from the cell.Are all of the components of the endomembrane system physically connected?no, vesicle pathways connect part of itList the components of the endomembrane system.the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, various types of vesicles and vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.Describe the ERpackaging and shipping stationwhat is the smooth er's function(outer surface lacks attached ribosomes), synthesis of lipids, storage of calcium, enzymes process harmfulWhat is the Rough ER's function(bound ribosomes on outer surface) Synthesizes: Secretory proteins glycoproteins proteinsDescribe the Golgi and processing for molecules to be put out of the cellwhat are lysosomes and their function.a membrane-enclosed sac of digestive enzymes, Our white blood cells engulf bacteria and then destroy them using lysosomes. Lysosomes also serve as recycling centers.How is Tay-Sachs disease related to lysosomes?a lipid-digesting enzyme is missing, and brain cells become impaired by an accumulation of lipids.What are Vacuoleslarge vesicles that have a variety of functions.What are several types of vacuolesIn plants and fungi, certain vacuoles have a digestive function similar to that of lysosomes in animal cells. In the seeds of plants, small vacuoles in storage cells can hold reserves of proteins. Vacuoles in flower petals contain pigments that attract pollinating insects. Vacuoles may also help protect the plant against herbivores by storing compounds that are poisonous or unpalatable to animals.Peroxisomes are not part of the endomembrane system. What is the function of peroxisomes?Some peroxisomes break down fatty acids to be used as cellular fuel. In your liver, peroxisomes detoxify harmful compoundsWhich organelles carry out cellular respirationMitochondriaWhat is cellular respirationmitochondria use O2 and release CO2 in transforming the chemical energy of foods to a form (ATP) that can be used for cellular work.What role do cristae playincrease the membrane's surface area, enhancing the mitochondrion's ability to produce ATPName the organelle of photosynthesis in eukaryoteschloroplastsWhat is in the stroma of a chloroplastchloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes.What characteristics do mitochondria and chloroplasts share with prokaryotes to support endosymbiosis?a single circular DNA molecule, similar in structure to a prokaryotic chromosome, and ribosomes more similar to prokaryotic ribosomes than to eukaryotic ones. Interestingly, both organelles reproduce in a cell by a process resembling that of certain prokaryotes.What does the hypothesis of endosymbiosis propose?that mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that began living within larger cells.What is the function of the cytoskeleton?fibers act like a skeleton in providing for structural support as well as movementWhat are the components of the cytoskeletonMicrotubules, intermediate filament, MicrofilamentsStructure and function of Microtubulesstraight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins; shape and support the cell and also act as tracks along which organelles equipped with motor proteins move.Structure and function of Intermediate Filamentmade of various fibrous proteins that supercoil into cables. Intermediate filaments reinforce cell shape and anchor some organelles;Structure and function of Microfilamentssolid rods composed mainly of globular proteins called actin, arranged in a twisted double chain; form a three-dimensional network just inside the plasma membrane that helps support the cell's shape.Where in animals are cilia foundwindpipeWhere in animals are flagella foundspermWhat are both cilia and flagella composed ofmicrotubules wrapped in an extension of the plasma membrane.What is the function of the extracellular matrix (ECM)helps hold cells together in tissues and protects and supports the plasma membrane.What are the main components of the ECM? What is the most abundant type?glycoproteins, proteins bonded with carbohydrates. The most abundant glycoprotein is collagenWhat are integrins and what are their functionsspan the membrane, attaching on the other side to proteins connected to microfilaments of the cytoskeleton.What are the 3 types of junctions in animal cellsTight Junction, Anchoring Junction, and Gap JunctionWhat is the purpose of a Gap junctionchannels that allow small molecules to flow through protein-lined pores between cells. The flow of ions through gap junctions in the cells of heart muscle coordinates their contraction.What is the purpose of an Anchoring Junctionfunction like rivets, fastening cells together into strong sheets. Intermediate filaments made of sturdy proteins anchor these junctions in the cytoplasm.What is the purpose of a Tight Junctionthe plasma membranes of neighboring cells are knit tightly together by proteins. Tight junctions prevent leakage of fluid across a layer of cells.What is the major component of plant cell walls?fibers of celluloseName the channels that form a circulatory and communication system between adjacent plant cells.plasmodesmataWhat animal cell junction is analogous to plasmodesmata?gap junctionWhat is Cytosolsemi-fluid substance inside cell, contains nutrients and enzymes for cell reactions, and cytoplasm = cytosol + organellesWhere is a ribosome madenucleolusWhat is the function of the cell wall of plant cells?protects the cells and also provides the skeletal support that keeps plants upright on land.Robert Hooke1665 looked into micro scope and coined the word "cell"Anton Van Leeuwenhoekbetter lenses observe tiny living things in cellsMatthias Schleiden1838 Concluded all Plant\s are made of cellsTheodor Schwann1834 Animals are made Up of cellsRudolph Virchow1855 Cell. reproduction Cells mUSt come from\ Other cellsWhat is within the nucleusnucleolus