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AP Human Geography Ch. 2 Maps, Scale, Space, and Place
Map Fundamentals Cognitive Maps Describing Location Space and Spatial Processes If you find something wrong with a term or definition, please tell me.
Terms in this set (56)
The distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer
The exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
A amp projection in which the plane is the most developable surface
The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
A type of thematic maps that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit data
An image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind
The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
The degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
The spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
A standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and longitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or feature on the earth's surface.
Distance Decay Effect
The decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases
Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accidents, or births
The spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange
Friction of Distance
A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions-north, south, east, and west-no longer have any meaning
The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed
A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
Anything in the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentially threatening
A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common
International Date Line
The line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian
The idea that one place has a demand for some good or service and two places have a supply of equal price and quality, then the closer of the two suppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the third from being able to share its supply of goods or services
Map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.
A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units
The angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by parallels
Law of Retail Gravitation
Law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction
The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by meridians
A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting
A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction
A line of longitude that runs north-south
An east-west line latitude that runs parallel to the equator and marks the distance north or south of the equator
Peters Map Projection
A cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses
A map that displays individual preferences fro certain places
An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0° line of longitude.
Proportional Symbols Map
a them. map in which the size of a chosen symbol - such as a circle or triangle indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
A map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating.
A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places
The location of a place in relation to other places around it
The diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, and the like from one place to another through migration.
A map's smallest discernible unit
Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each
The ratio between the size of an area on a map and he actual size of that same area on the earth's surface
The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics
The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system
Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small; usually depict large areas
Refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space.
When a trait of one culture prompts invention or innovation in another
A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area.
The idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as technolgy enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.
Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations
The amount of connectivity between places, regardless of the absolute distance separating them
The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive