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BIO201: Chapter Ten
review for Unit 3 lecture exam (part 2)
Terms in this set (97)
what are the three types of cells in muscle tissue?
skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
what is the basic function that is common to each muscle tissue type?
what are the other functions of muscle tissue not including muscle tension?
create movement, maintain posture, stabilize joints, generate heat, and regulate the flow of materials through hollow organs
which type of muscle tissue is made up of long muscle cells arranged parallel to one another where some are quite long extending nearly the entire length of the muscle?
which type of muscle cells are known as fibers due to their lengths and appearance and they are multi nucleated cells whose contractions are voluntary or controlled by conscious thought?
which type of muscle tissue is mostly found attached by connective tissue to the skeleton where their contraction can produce movement of a body part?
which type of muscle cells are only found in the heart and each cell is short and highly branched and has 1 to 2 nuclei?
which type of muscle tissue contains intercalated discs that join adjacent cells and they contain gap junctions and desmosomes that both unite the cells and permit them to coordinate contraction?
which type of muscle tissue is where the contraction is involuntary or not controlled by conscious thought and can only be found in the heart?
which type of muscle tissue contains cells that do not have striations and or unlike skeletal and cardiac muscle tissues?
which type of muscle tissue contain cells that are long and flat with spindle-shaped pointed ends and a single centrally located nucleus and these cells are found lining most hollow organs in the eye, skin, and some glandular ducts and their contractions are involuntary?
which type of muscle tissue is where many of the cells are linked to one another by gap junctions allowing for synchronized contractions?
what are the five properties of muscle cells?
contractility, excitability, conductivity, extensibility, and elasticity
which property of muscle cells has the ability to contract where proteins in the cell draw closer together but this does not necessarily involve shortening of the cell?
which property of muscle cells has the ability of a cell to respond to a stimulus which could be chemical, mechanical, stretch, or local electrical signals?
which property of muscle cells has the ability of a cell to conduct electrical changes across the entire plasma membrane?
which property of muscle cells has the ability of a cell that allows it to be stretched without being ruptured up to three times the resting length without damage?
which property of muscle cells has the ability of a cell that allows it to return to its original link after it has been stretched?
What are also called muscle cells and are described using specialized terminology?
What is the myocyte's cytoplasm?
what is the myoctye's plasma membrane?
what is the modified endoplasmic reticulum that forms a weblike network surrounding the myofibrils and varies in structure in the three types of muscle tissue?
what are unique structures found in each of the three muscle cell types?
cylindrical ____________________, found in great numbers (100s to 1000s) in the myocyte, make up 50-80% of the ______ _____________.
organelles, cell volume
smooth muscle cells' myofibril arrangement is __________________ than cardiac and skeletal muscle cells
what are thin cylinders but can be quite long and thick and can reach lengths up to 30 centimeters and can reach a thickness up to 100 micrometers?
skeletal muscle fibers
what are formed by the fusion of many embryonic myoblasts giving each fiber multiple nuclei?
skeletal muscle fibers
what are the most abundant organelles that are made up of mostly contractile proteins?
what surrounds the myofibrils and stores and releases calcium ions?
what are deep inward extensions of sarcolemma that surround each myofibril?
what forms a tunnel-like network within the muscle fiber and is continuous with the exterior of the cell and are therefore filled with extracellular fluid?
what are enlarges sections of SR found flanking each t-tubule?
Two terminal cistern and their corresponding t-tubule form a ______________
what are the three types of proteins that make up myofilaments?
contractile, regulatory, and structural
which type of myofilament protein generates tension?
which type of myofilament protein dictates when a fiber may contract?
which type of myofilament protein maintains the proper myofilament alignment and fiber stability?
what are the three types of myofilaments?
thick, thin, and elastic
which type of myofilament is composed of bundles of the contractile protein myosin?
which type of myofilament is composed of the proteins actin, tropomyosin, and troponin?
which type of myofilament is composed of a single massive, spring-like structural protein called titan that stabilizes the myofibril structure and resists excessive stretching force?
each myosin has ________________ _____________ at each end lined by intertwining tails
what subunits string together like beads on a necklace to form the two intertwining strands in the functional thin filament and each beach-shaped actin has an active site that binds with the myosin heads of the thick filament?
what is a long, rope-like regulatory protein that twists around actin covering up its active sites?
what is a small globular regulatory protein that holds tropomyosin in place and assists with turning contractions on and off?
what type of striations appear microscopically?
light and dark bands
which type of striation is where only thin filaments are found?
which type of striation is where both thin and thick filaments are found?
what is found in the middle of the light band?
what anchors the thin filaments in place and to one another, serves as attachment points for elastic filaments, and attaches myofibrils to one another across the entire diameter of the muscle fiber?
what contains the zone of overlap?
the A band
what is the region where we find both thick and thin filaments and where tension is generated during contraction?
zone of overlap
what is a dark line in the middle of the A band made up of structural proteins that hold the thick filaments in place and serve as an anchoring point for elastic filaments?
the M line
what is it called when your hands represent a single, large sarcomere and where your fingers overlap represents the zone of overlap of the thick and thin filaments?
sliding filament mechanism of contraction
what does it mean when during a contraction both the I band and the H zone narrow while the A band remains unchanged; myosin heads attached to actin to pull the thin filaments toward the M line which brings Z discs closer together shortening the sarcomere; sarcomeres are arranged end to end within each myofibril and when simultaneously contracted shorten the whole muscle fiber?
sliding filament mechanism
what are due to an unequal distribution of ions near the plasma membrane resulting in a polarized resting state?
what type of charged ions exist in the cytosol on the inside of the cell?
what type of charged ions exist on the outside of the cell?
The separation of charges creates an ______________ _______________.
when the barrier separating the ions is removed, they follow their gradients, creating a flow of electrical charges, and the potential energy becomes _________________ _____________.
electrical gradient can also be referred to as an?
what is the electrical potential or charge difference that exists across the plasma membrane?
what is a difference in charge or potential between two points called?
The potential across the Sarco lima is quite small and is therefore measured in a unit called?
what does a resting muscle fiber measure to?
what are brief changes in the membrane potential of a cell from a resting negative value to a positive value, then back to its resting negative value?
what are the two types of gated ion channels in the plasma membrane that action potentials are generated by?
ligand-gated and voltage-gated
which type of gated ion channel opens in response to the presence of a chemical or ligand?
which type of gated ion channel opens and closes in response to changes in the membrane potential of the plasma membrane?
what begins when voltage-gated Na channels open allowing Na to flow inward?
what begins after Na channels have closed and voltage-gated K channels have opened allowing K to diffuse out of the cell?
what is when all skeletal muscles are innervated which means they are connected to a neuron and a single neuron called a motor neuron communicates with many muscle fibers each connection is referred to as a synapse and the synapse is where a single motor neuron communicates with many muscle fibers and the function of this is to transmit a signal called a nerve impulse or an action potential from the neuron to the sarcolemma of the muscle fiber?
what are the three components of the neuromuscular junction?
axon terminal, synaptic cleft, and motor end plate
which component of the neuromuscular junction contains synaptic vesicles filled with the neurotransmitter ACh and the neurotransmitters are chemicals that trigger changes in a target tissue when released allowing for cell to cell communication?
which component of the neuromuscular junction is the space between the axon terminal and the muscle fiber and is filled with collagen fibers and a gel that anchors the neuron in place?
which component of the neuromuscular junction is a specialized region of the muscle fiber plasma membrane whose folded surface has many ligand-gated Na channels and ACh is the ligand that opens these gates allowing Na to diffuse into the muscle cell?
motor end plate
what are the three phases of muscle contraction?
excitation phase, excitation-contraction coupling, and contraction phase
which phase of muscle contraction is when an action potential from the brain or spinal cord arrives at the synaptic terminus of a motor neuron, signaling the release of ACh from the axon terminal into the synaptic cleft?
Which phase of muscle contraction is the link between the events at the neuromuscular junction and the contraction?
which phase of muscle contraction begins when actin active site is exposed, initiating the cross bridge cycle; and a power stroke occurs when ADP are released from the myosin head and the myosin combine to another ATP which breaks the link with the actin active site?
The cross bridge cycle may be ________________ as long as the stimulus to contract continues in ATP is available.
what are the three energy sources for muscle fibers?
immediate cytosolic reactions, glycolytic catabolism, and oxidative catabolism
which Energy source for muscle fibers is the main immediate energy and is stored as ATP in the muscle fiber and is rapidly consumed during muscle contraction?
which Energy source for muscle fibers is a series of reactions that occur and also cytosol to break glucose down and to pyruvate and it provides energy for muscle contraction wants immediate sources of energy are depleted?
which energy source for muscle fibers requires oxygen directly and allows for longer lasting muscle contractions because these reactions produce many more ATP than glycolysis?
what are removed from fuel molecules?
which type of class of skeletal muscle fibers are small in diameter and slow-twitch fibers that contract slowly to produce less force for a longer period of time?
which type of class of skeletal muscle fibers are large in diameter and are fast twitch fibers that fatigue quickly?
what are the three sub types of type II fibers?
IIa, IIx, and IIb
A single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers that it innervates define a?
what is a baseline level of involuntary activation of motor units by the brain and spinal cord?
what are the three types of muscle contractions?
Isotonic concentric, isotonic eccentric, and isometric
which type of muscle contractions maintain constant tension while the muscle shortens and the force generated by the muscle is greater than the external force?
which type of muscle contractions maintain constant tension but the muscle lengthens, as the external force applied is greater than the force generated by the muscle?
which type of muscle contractions is where the muscle length remains unchanged because the external force applied equals that generated by the muscle?
what is the inability to maintain a given level of intensity during activity?
what are the functions of smooth muscle?
propels materials, forms sphincters that control the passage of materials, and regulates flow rates
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
BIO201: Chapter Nine
BIO201: Lab Seven
BIO201: Lab Eight
BIO201: Lab Nine
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