Test Study Guide

Differentiate between an observation and an inference.
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Why didnt the anti biotics work for addiebecause the bacteria was ressistant.Describe exponential bacterial growthExponential growth is a specific way that a quantity may increase over timeName the process that bacteria undergo to reproduce.binary fission.Describe the offspring of bacteria compared to the parent.They are very similar but not the same.How long does it take a bacterium to reproduce?20 minutesDescribe antibiotic treatment on bacteria WITHOUT reproductionthey prevent nutrients from reaching the bacteria, which stops them from dividing and multiplying.https://images.app.goo.gl/aeGVAMdu8G5zpQiJ9Describe antibiotic treatment on bacteria WITH reproductionBacteria develop resistance mechanisms by using instructions provided by their DNA. https://images.app.goo.gl/zFpmzbfqVPG2Fe4u6How did a population of bacteria become resistant to antibiotics, even if the bacteria traits are not changing?They are just stronger than all the other ones.Draw and name 3 common shapes of bacteria.The three basic bacterial shapes are coccus (spherical), bacillus (rod-shaped), and spiral (twisted)Do most bacteria cause disease?No; only a tiny fraction of bacteria cause diseasesdiagram of prokaryotic cellNotice there is no nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles. There are ribosomes for making proteins.three classes of antibiotics and how they kill bacteria.Aminoglycosides.Carbapenems.Cephalosporins. They either prevent the reproduction of bacteria, or they kill the bacteria,compare antibiotics with antivirals and vaccinesantiviral agents are drugs used to treat people or animals once they've become sick, while vaccines are used to prevent diseases in those who are still healthy.How do viruses cause disease (2 ways)killing cells or disrupting cell function, marshaling the immune system's antibodies and other cells to target the invaderList the five ways viruses are transmitted.Physical contact. Infections, especially skin contagions, are spread by direct physical contact. ...Droplet spreading. Colds, strep throat etc. ...Contaminated items. ...Bowel movements. ...Exposure to bloodcolds, flu, HIV and West Nile areviral.two ways that we can prevent the spread of pathogens?Handle & Prepare Food Safely. Food can carry germs. ...Wash Hands Often. Learn how to Clean Hands and Help Prevent Flu.How do bacteria benefit the environment in their role as decomposers, producers and nitrogen fixersThe cycling of nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur is completed by their ceaseless labor. Organic carbon, in the form of dead and rotting organisms, would quickly deplete the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere if not for the activity of decomposers.What is your microbiome and how is it beneficialThe bacteria in the microbiome help digest our food, regulate our immune system, protect against other bacteria that cause disease, and produce vitamins including Bsix ways to control bacteria.Physical control includes such methods of control as high or low temperature, desiccation, osmotic pressure, radiation, and filtration.Strep throat, Tuberculosis and Lyme disease arebacterialWhat are the first and second lines of nonspecific defense for the human immune system?The first line of defense against infection are the surface barriers that prevent the entry of pathogens into the body. The second line of defense are the non-specific phagocytes and other internal mechanisms that comprise innate immunity.What are the two components of the specific defense system?T lymphocytes and B lymphocytesWhat do B and T cells doB cells are involved in the humoral immune response, which targets pathogens loose in blood and lymph, while T cells are involved in the cell-mediated immune response, which targets infected cells.