ENVR-1401 science test 2

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What is evolution?
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Terms in this set (41)
What is the difference between intraspecific competition and interspecific competition? Give an example of each.- Interspecific competition: Competition between members of different species - 2) use a different resource, or - Intraspecific competition: Competition between members of same species - Territoriality to prevent competitionWhat is symbiosis? Give a brief description of the three types of symbiotic relationships.- Symbiosis - Two or more species live intimately together, with their fates linked. One species or both species benefit from this relationship. - Mutualism: both species benefit from the relationship. - Commensalism: one clearly benefits and the other is neither benefited nor harmed. - Parasitism: dependency of the parasite on the hostWhat is abundance?The total number of organisms within a speciesWhat is diversity?The number of different speciesWhat part of the world do you find high abundance and low diversity?The Arctic has low diversity but has a very large number of mosquitos.What part of the world do you find high diversity and low abundance?A tropical rainforest has high species diversity but also has a low number of organisms per species.What is ecological succession?The transition(s) from one biological community to another over time.What is the difference between primary succession and secondary succession?- Primary succession - Begins with land that has no soil. - Secondary succession - Major disturbance of community but soil and seeds are still present.What is a biome?distinct region w/ characteristics that tends to vary based on climate, productivity levels, and types of Biological CommunitiesBesides coral bleaching, what other environmental impact is negatively affecting coral reefs?Coral reefs are negatively affected by pollution (urban runoff, sewage, industrial effluent, sediment from agriculture)How are barrier islands formed?Formed from wind and wave-deposited sand.What percentage of wetlands have been lost to human disturbance in the United States?50% have been drained, filled, or lost to coastal erosion in U.S. - Much greater losses in some countries, up to 90%.What is the difference between a species and a population?Species - Similar organisms that can interbreed and produce live, fertile, offspring Population - All members of a single species in a given areaWhat is the difference between a species fecundity and fertility rate?Fecundity - Maximum number of offspring that can be produced by a member of a species Fertility - Actual number of offspring produced by a member of a speciesA "superfly" with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of population growth curve?exponential growth at a constant rate infinitely.What is carrying capacity?number of animals that can be supported on a long-term basis in an environment, given the available food or other critical resources.What is the "minimum viable population size?"minimum size of population necessary in order for species to surviveWhat is conservation biology?Mission-oriented science aimed at protecting biodiversity or restoring biodiversity.What does "fishing down the food chain" mean and why do we do it?practice of fishing top predators nearly to extinction then moving on to smaller, less desirable fish.What is habitat fragmentation? Does habitat fragmentation harm all species?large expanse of habitat transformed into numbers of smaller patches of habitat isolated from each other.What is the overall effect of habitat fragmentation? Does it tend to increase, decrease, or not affect species and genetic diversity? (Hint: Think of what happens when a small population of a species moves to an island. What happens to their genetic diversity?)Habitat fragmentation forms islands of habitat isolated from each other. Results in reduced genetic diversity and reduced gene flow.What is taxonomy? How does taxonomy show evolutionary relationships?Branch of science concerned w/ classifying organisms based on their characteristics that indicate shared descent. These differences indicate the degree of change in species characteristics as speciation occurred. - * Scientific names for species relies on species taxonomy.Describe how the process of natural selection works in a population. (Hint: You can use the peppered moth as an example.)Peppered moth used to be predominantly white with black specks. •This allowed it to blend in with a tree of similar coloring (top picture). •This helps the moth to avoid predation by birds, if it can't be seen.What ecosystem services do wetlands provide?They protect our shores from wave action, reduce the impacts of floods, absorb pollutants and improve water quality. They provide habitat for animals and plants and many contain a wide diversity of life,What is an estuary and why are they an important ecosystem?Estuaries are areas of water and shoreline where rivers meet the ocean or another large body of water, , estuaries are also very productive ecosystems. They receive nutrients and can support a variety of life.Why do coral reefs matter? Are they an endangered ecosystem?Coral reefs are endangered by a variety of factors, including: local threats such as overfishing, and pollution, ..Coral reefs protect coastlines from storms and erosion, provide jobs for local communities, They are also are a source of food and new medicines. ...Why are barrier islands not good places for development?climate change and sea level rise will force a retreat from the shore.What is a genetic bottleneck event? Give 2 reasons why a genetic bottleneck increases the risk of a species going extinct.Genetic diversity remains lower due to natural disasters reduction in population size Smaller population size can also cause deleterious mutations to accumulate.[3]Why is the minimum viable population size of a species greater than a few breeding pairs? What happens when the population size of a species becomes too low?should not be less than 50 in a short term and 500 in a long term. prevent inbreeding depressionr-selectionproduce many "cheap" offspring and live in unstable environmentsK-selectionproduce few "expensive" offspring and live in stable environments.