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113 terms

Nutrition chapter one

STUDY
PLAY
features of a chronic disease include all of the following except
it produces sharp pains
characteristics of an acute disease include all of the following except
it progresses slowly
what is the chief reason people choose the foods they eat
taste
All of the following are results of making poor food choices except
when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health
a child who developed a strong dislike of noodle soup after consuming some when she was sick with the flu is an example of a food-related
negative association
a parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as
positive association
a person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day would be displaying a food choice most likely based on
habit
which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association
an elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because it is a child's food
the motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely his
values
A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice most likely based on
emotional comfort
excluding fast food establishments, approximately who percentage of restaurants in the United States show an ethnic emphasis
60%
terms that describe a food that provides health benefits beyond its nutrient contribution include all of the following except
phytonutritional food
what is the term that defines foods that contain nonnutrient substances who known action in the body is to promote well-being to a greater extent than that contributed by the food's nutrients
functional foods
nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as
phytochemicals
the complete listing of a persons digestive tract is renewed approximately every
3-5 days
by chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in the highest amount in most foods
water
approximately how much water (lbs) would be found in a 120-lb person
72
which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients
fiber
a nutrient needed by the body and that must be supplemented by foods is termed
essential nutrient
all of the following are classified as macronutrients except
calcium
which of the following is an example of a macronutrient
protein
which of the following is classified as a micronutrient
iron
which of the following is an organic compound
Vitamin C
An essential nutrient is one that cannot be
made in sufficient quantities by the body
which of the following most accurately describes the term organic
substances with carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
which of the following is an organic nutrient
fat
approximately how many nutrients are considered indispensable in the diet
40
which if the following cannot add fat to the body
inorganic substances
which of the following is an example of micronutrient
Vitamin C
which of the following nutrients does not yield energy during its metabolism
vitamins
how much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram (liter) of water 1 degree C
1 kilocalorie
gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy
fats
food energy is commonly expressed in kcalories and in
kilojoules
international units of energy are expressed in
kilojoules
approximately how many millimeters are contained in a half- cup of milk
120
a normal half-cup vegetable serving weighs approximately how many grams
100
a weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories, which includes 30g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed to fat
19
A diet provides a total 2200 kcalories, of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrates are contained in the diet
220
what is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110g of carbohydrates, 25g of protein, 20g of fat, and 5g of alcohol
755
which of the following nutrient sources yields more than 4 kcalories per gram
plant fats
which of the following is a result of the metabolism of energy nutrients
energy is released
which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of most foods
they contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two my predominate
in the body, the chemical energy in food can be converted to any of the following except
light energy
when consumed in excess, all of the following can be converted to body fat and stored except
vitamin C
how many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings
13
which of the following is not a characteristic of the vitamins
inorganic
which of the following is a feature of the minerals as nutrients
some become dissolved in body fluids
how many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings
16
which of the following is not a characteristic of the minerals
unstable to light
overcooking a food is least likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients
minerals
Your friend Carrie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as an
anecdote
the study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients it termed
nutritional genomics
what is the meaning of a double-blind experiment
neither the subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group
in the scientific method, a tentative solution to a problem is called the
hypothesis
among the following, which is the major weakness of a laboratory- based study
the results cannot be applied to human beings
what is the benefit of using controls in an experiment
the subjects are similar in all respects except for the treatment being given
what is the benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment
chance variation is ruled out
a clinical trial must involve
human beings as subjects
what is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment
all subjects receive a treatment
in nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eaten by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as
epidemological studies
You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiment on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have done differently
prevented yourself from knowing what was in the pill bottles, and distributed the bottles randomly to the subjects
overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a
positive correlation
an increase in exercise accompanied by a decrease in body weight is an example of a
negative correlation
before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field according to a process known as
peer review
All of the following sets of values are included in the Dietary Recommended Intakes except
LUT
which of the following is not a set of values within the Dietary Reference Intakes
estimated average allowances
the smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient
requirement
if a group of people consumed an amount of protein equal to the average requirement for their population group, what percentage would receive insufficient amounts
50
a health magazine connected you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amount of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be
the recommended dietary allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people
Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to
assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals
Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the
estimated average requirement
the amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of about 98% of a population is termed the
Recommended Dietary Allowance
The RDA for nutrients are generally
designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people
how are the RDA for almost all vitamin and mineral intakes set
high, to cover virtually all healthy individuals
Which of the following is not a feature of the AI and RDA
the percentage of people covered is known for both values
all of the following features are shared by the RDA and the AI except
neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people
which of the following is a purpose of both the RDA and AI
setting nutrient goals for individuals
Bob consumes about 2500 kcalories per day, which is apportioned as 150 g of fat, 140g of carbohydrate, and 150g of protein. What would be the appropriate revisions to help Bob adjust his nutrient intake so that it matches the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
70g of fat, 156g of protein, 313g of carbohydrate
which of the following represents a rationale for setting the recommendation for energy
because of a margin of safety would result in excess energy intake for a large number of people, the figures are set at the average energy intake
what does the tolerable upper intake level of a nutrient represent
the maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people
what set of values is used to recommend the average kcalorie intake that maintains population groups in energy balance
estimated energy requirement
the percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges
what is the AMDR for carbohydrate
45-65%
which of the following figures falls within the carbohydrate range of the AMDR
50%
what is the AMDR for protein
10-35%
what is the upper range of fat intake in the AMDR
35%
what is the AMDR for fat
20-35%
if a person consumed the upper AMDR limit for protein as part of a diet containing 2500 kcalories, approximately hoe many grams of protein would be ingested
219
what is the weight (lbs) of the reference adult male
154
what is the weight (lbs) of the reference adult female
126
all of the following describes features for application of the recommended nutrient intakes except
the recommendations also apply to sick people
the Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to
plan and evaluate diets for healthy people
which of the following is used to detect nutrient deficiencies
assessment techniques
as a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. Which of the following are the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals
historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests
which of the following is an anthropometric measurement
body weight
inspection of hair, eyes, skin and posture is part of the nutrition assessment component known as
physical examination
which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency
laboratory tests
which of the following represents the usual sequence of stages in the development of a nutrient deficiency resulting from inadequate intake
declining nutrient stores, abnormal functions, within the body, and overt signs
which of the following would most likely lead to a primary nutrient deficiency
inadequate nutrient intake
what type of deficiency is caused by inadequate absorption of a nutrient
secondary
a subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that
is in the early stages
which of the following is an overt sign of iron deficiency
headaches
to identify early-stage malnutrition, a health professional would use which of the following parameters
laboratory tests
what entity coordinates nutrition-related activities of federal agencies
The National Nutrition Monitoring program
the goal of Healthy People is to
set goals for the nation's health over the next 10 years
which of the following does not describe a national trend in eating habits of Americans
we eat more high-fiber foods
the most common causes of death today in the United States include all of the following except
tuberculosis
of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition
4
which of the following leading causes of death in the US does not bear a relationship to diet
pneumonia and influenza
factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be casual are called
risk factors
which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease
the more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
Which of the following factors makes the greatest contribution to deaths in the US
tobacco
what behavior is the major cause of death in the US
tobacco use