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250 terms

APUSH: The Great War - Potsdam Conference

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"Sick Man of Europe," Ottoman Empire, Balkan Wars
Because the Ottoman Empire's internal authority had broken down, it was not able to keep order in Macedonia and Albania, and the Balkans were on the verge of war. After the second Balkan war, Bulgaria was forced to surrender much of the territory it won in the first Balkan war.
Triple Entente; Allies
Britain, France and Russia all had economic and territorial ambitions and they all disliked Germany, so they formed an alliance for protection.
Triple Alliance; Central Powers
Germany, Austria and Hungary formed an alliance for protection from the Triple Entente.
Loans to the Allies
During WWII, loans were offered under the Lend-Lease Act, which became law March 11, 1914. The U.S. spent $54 billion.
British blockade
Declared a loose, ineffectual and hence illegal blockade, it defined a broad list of contraband which was not to be shipped to Germany by neutral countries.
Lusitania, Arabic Pledge, Sussex Pledge
May 7, 1915 - British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs, but the Lusitania had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
Election of 1916: Hughes, Wilson, issues
The Democrats emphasized a program of domestic reform. Charles Evans Hughes left the Supreme Court to challenge Wilson, a democrat.
Unrestricted submarine warfare
This was the German practice of attacking any and all shipping to countries it was at war with. It annoyed neutral countries.
Zimmerman note
1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile.
Russian Revolutions, 1917, March and Bolshevik
After years of oppression, the peasants rebelled against the czars. The first government was democratic and weak, so another revolution overthrew that government and instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI (The Germans may have aided his rise to power so they would not have to fight on two fronts).
War declared, April 1917
U.S. declared war on Germany due to the Zimmerman telegram and the attack on the Lusitania.
"Make the world safe for democracy"
Wilson gave this as a reason for U.S. involvement in WWI.
Creel Committee
Headed by George Creel, this committee was in charge of propaganda for WWI (1917-1919). He depicted the U.S. as a champion of justice and liberty.
Bond drives
Campaigns to get people to but government war bonds to finance the war, people traveled around America selling them and it was extremely successful in raising funds.
War Industries Board
The most powerful agency of the war, it had to satisfy the allied needs for goods and direct American industries in what to produce.
Bernard Baruch
Millionaire, he headed the War Industries Board after 1918.
Herbert Hoover, Food Administration
He led the Food Administration and started many programs to streamline food production and distribution.
Espionage Act, 1917; Sedition Act, 1918
Brought forth under the Wilson administration, they stated that any treacherous act or draft dodging was forbidden, outlawed disgracing the government, the Constitution, or military uniforms, and forbade aiding the enemy.
Eugene V. Debs imprisoned
Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act.
AEF
American Expeditionary Force was the first American ground troops to reach the European front. Commanded by Pershing, they began arriving in France in the summer of 1917.
Selective service 1917
Stated that all men between the ages of 20 and 45 had to be registered for possible military service. Used in case draft became necessary.
Black migration to northern cities
During WWI, southern Blacks began to move north, where there were more jobs and less racism. The increased number of Blacks led to a White backlash and conditions like Southern racism.
Aims of Allies and U.S. at Peach Conference
Allies wanted Germany to pay reparation for costs of war. Wilson brought 14 points, but only one was accomplished. The harsh punishment sent Germany into a depression and aided the rise of Hitler.
Wartime manpower losses
WWI involved violent, modern weapons and old fighting styles. With so many men at war, nations needed other people to work in the factories and other wartime industries.
Fourteen Points
Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations.
Congressional elections of 1918
The 66th Congress, under President Wilson. He begged people to elect Democrats so that they could support his foreign policy initiatives in Congress, but the public rejected him. The senate had 47 Democrats and 49 Republicans and the House had 216 Democrats, 210 Republicans and 6 others.
Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Versailles Delegation
Led by Wilson, it fought for the inclusion of the 14 Points. Only one to be included was the League of Nations.
Big Four: Wilson, George, Clemenceau, Orlando
Leaders of the four most influential countries after World War I - U.S., Britain, France and Italy, respectively.
League of Nations
Devised by President Wilson, it reflected the power of large countries. Although comprised of delegates from every country, it was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court.
Collective Security
An Article 10 provision of the League charter, it stated that if one country was involved in a confrontation, other nations would support it. Collective security is agreements between countries for mutual defense and to discourage aggression.
New Nations, self determination
After WW I, Germany, Eastern Europe and the western portion of the former Russian Empire split into new countries. Wilson wanted them to have their own governments.
Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Mandate system
A half-way system between outright imperial domination and independence, it was used to split Germany's empire after WW I.
Article 10 (Article X) of the Versailles Treaty
Created the League of Nations.
Article 231 of the Versailles Treaty
One of the more controversial articles, it dealt with the legal liability of Germany vs. the moral liability.
Senate rejection, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, reservations
Lodge was against the League of Nations, so he packed the foreign relations committee with critics and was successful in convincing the Senate to reject the treaty.
"Irreconcilables": Borah, Johnson, LaFollette
Some Senators would have been willing to support the League of Nations if certain reservations were made to the treaty. The "Irreconcilables" voted against the League of Nations with or without reservations.
Red Scare, Palmer raids
In 1919, the Communist Party was gaining strength in the U.S., and Americans feared Communism. In January, 1920, Palmer raids in 33 cities broke into meeting halls and homes without warrants. 4,000 "Communists" were jailed, some were deported.
Strikes: 1919, coal, steel, police
In September, 1919, Boston police went on strike, then 350,000 steel workers went on strike. This badly damaged the unions.
Inflation during WW I
Caused by increased taxes and the government borrowing money directly from citizens.
Election of 1920: candidates, issues
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
Brief depression, 1920-1921
Two years after WW I, prices went up and consumers stopped buying. Unemployment rose from 2% to 12% and industry and export trade halted.
Election of 1920: candidates, issues, vice-presidential candidates
Republican, Warren G. Harding, with V.P. running mate Coolidge, beat Democrat, Governor James Cox, with V.P. running mate, FDR. The issues were WW I, the post-war economy and the League of Nations.
Normalcy
Harding wanted a return to "normalcy" - the way life was before WW I.
Esch-Cummins Transportation Act
Provided for the return of railroads to private control, widened powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Harding scandals: Charles Forbes
Forbes served time for fraud and bribery in connection with government contracts. He took millions of dollars from the Veteran's Bureau.
Harding scandals: Harry Daugherty
Daugherty was implicated for accepting bribes.
Harding scandals: Secretary of the Interior Fall
Fall leased government land to the oil companies (Teapot Dome Scandal) and was convicted of accepting a bribe.
Harding scandals: Teapot Dome
1929 - The Naval strategic oil reserve at Elk Hills, also known as "Teapot Dome" was taken out of the Navy's control and placed in the hands of the Department of the Interior, which leased the land to oil companies. Several Cabinet members received huge payments as bribes. Due to the investigation, Daugherty, Denky, and Fall were forced to resign.
Harding scandals: Harry Sinclair
He leased government land to the oil companies and was forced to resign due to the investigation. He was acquitted on the bribery charges.
Harding's death, Coolidge takes over
August 2, 1923 - President Harding died and Vice President Calvin Coolidge took over.
Bureau of the Budget
Created in 1921, its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
Secretary of the Treasury Mellon, tax cuts
An American financier, he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921 and served under Coolidge and Hoover. While he was in office, the government reduced the WW I debt by $9 billion and Congress cut income tax rates substantially. He is often called the greatest Secretary of the Treasury after Hamilton.
Senator George Norris (1861-1944), Muscle Shoals
He served in Congress for 40 years and is often called the Father of the Tennessee Valley Authority, a series of dams and power plants designed to bring electricity to some of the poorest areas of the U.S., like Appalachia.
Election of 1924: candidates
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.
Robert M. LaFollette (1855-1925)
A great debater and political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin.
Progressive Party
The popular name of the "People's Party," formed in the 1890's as a coalition of Midwest farm groups, socialists, and labor organizations, such as the American Federation of Labor. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax.
McNary-Haugen Bill, vetos
The bill was a plan to raise the prices of farm products. The government could buy and sell the commodities at world price and tariff. Surplus sold abroad. It was vetoes twice by Coolidge. It was the forerunner of the 1930's agricultural programs.
Federal Farm Board
Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought, flood, or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
Election of 1928: candidates, personalities, backgrounds
Herbert Hoover, the Republican, was a Quaker from Iowa, orphaned at 10, who worked his way through Stanford University. He expounded nationalism and old values of success through individual hard work. Alfred E. Smith, the Democrat, was a Catholic from New York, of immigration stock and advocated social reform programs.
Bruce Barton, The Man Nobody Knows, 1925
Advertising executive Barton called Jesus the "founder of modern business" because he picked men up from the bottom ranks and built a successful empire.
Henry L. Mencken, editor of the magazine, The American Mercury
In 1924, founded The American Mercury, which featured works by new writers and much of Mencken's criticism on American taste, culture, and language. He attacked the shallowness and conceit of the American middle class.
"The Lost Generation"
Writer Gertrude Stein named the new literary movement when she told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. Hemingway used the quote in The Sun Also Rises. They thought that the U.S. was materialistic and the criticized conformity.
F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby
Most critics regard this as his finest work. Written in 1925, it tells of an idealist who is gradually destroyed by the influence of the wealthy, pleasure-seeking people around him.
Sinclair Lewis, Main Street, Babbit
He gained international fame for his novels attacking the weakness in American society. The first American to win the Nobel Prize for literature, Main Street (1920) was a satire on the dullness and lack of culture in a typical American town. Babbit (1922) focuses on a typical small business person's futile attempts to break loose from the confinements in the life of an American citizen.
Theodore Dreiser, An American Tragedy
Foremost American writer in the Naturalism movement, this book, written in 1925, criticized repressive, hypocritical society. It tells about a weak young man trying unsuccessfully to rise out of poverty into upper class society who is executed for the murder of his pregnant girlfriend.
Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms
He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954 and the Pulitzer Prize in 1952. A Farewell to Arms was written in 1929 and told the story of a love affair between an American ambulance driver and a British nurse in Italy during WW I.
T.S. Elliot, "The Waste Land"
One of the most influential poets of the early 20th century, he had been born in St. Louis, Missouri, but moved to England after college and spent his adult life in Europe. The poem, written in 1922, contrasts the spiritual bankruptcy of modern Europe with the values and unity of the past. Displayed profound despair. Considered the foundation of modernist, 20th century poetry.
Sigmund Freud's Theories
An Austrian physician with new ideas on the human mind. One of the founders of the modern science of psychiatry, discovered the subconscious. Believed that the mind is divided into 3 parts: id - primitive impulse; ego - reason which regulates between the id and reality; and superego - morals.
KDKA, Pittsburgh
One of the first radio stations to pioneer in commercial radio broadcasting in 1920. By 1922 there were 508 radio stations.
Prohibition, Volstead Act, Al Capone
Prohibition - 1919: the 18th Amendment outlawed the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors. Volstead Act - 1919: Defined what drinks constituted "intoxicating liquors" under the 18th Amendment, and set penalties for violations of prohibition. Al Capone: In Chicago, he was one of the most famous leaders of organized crime of the era.
Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's
Based on the post-Civil War terrorist organization, the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 by William Simmons to fight the growing "influence" of blacks, Jews and Catholics in US society. It experienced phenomenal growth in the 1920's, especially in the Midwest and Ohio Valley states. It's peak membership came in 1924 at 3 million members, but its reputation for violence led to rapid decline by 1929.
Fundamentalists
Broad movement in Protestantism in the U.S. which tried to preserve what it considered the basic ideas of Christianity against criticism by liberal theologies. It stressed the literal truths of the Bible and creation.
Immigration Acts, 1921, 1924, Quota System
1921 - First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants. Quota was 357,800, which let in only 2% of the number of people of that nationality that were allowed in in 1890. 1924 - Limited the number of immigrants to 150,000 per year.
Sacco and Vanzetti case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
Leopold and Loeb case
Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were convicted of killing a young boy, Bobby Franks, in Chicago just to see if they could get away with it. Defended by Clarence Darrow, they got life imprisonment. Both geniuses, they had decided to commit the perfect murder. The first use of the insanity defense in court.
Billy Sunday (1863-1935)
Baseball player and preacher, his baseball background helped him become the most popular evangelist minister of the time. Part of the Fundamentalist revival of the 1920's.
Scopes trial, Clarence Darrow, William Jennings Bryan
1925 - Prosecution of Dayton, Tennessee school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of the Butler Act, a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Former Democratic presidential candidate, William Jennings Bryan, prosecuted the case, and the famous criminal attorney, Clarence Darrow, defended Scopes. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
Henry Ford, the Model T, Alfred P. Sloan
1913 - Ford developed the mass-produced Model-T car, which sold at an affordable price. It pioneered the use of the assembly line. Also greatly increased his workers wages and instituted many modern concepts of regular work hours and job benefits. Sloan, an American industrialist, helped found project.
Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959)
Motion picture producer and director, he was famous for Biblical films and epic movies.
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound, this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer, Al Jolson.
Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), Charlie Chaplin
Valentino, a romantic leading man, was one of the most popular dramatic stars of silent films. Chaplin was a popular star of silent slap-stick comedies.
New Woman, Flappers
1920's - Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men.
Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes (1902-1967)
Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals.
James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938)
American poet and part of the Harlem Renaissance, he was influenced by jazz music.
Marcus Garvey (1887-1940), Universal Negro Improvement Association
Black leader who advocated "black nationalism," and financial independence for Blacks, he started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed Blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.
Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974), Spirit of St. Louis
Lindbergh flew his airplane, the Spirit of St. Louis, across the Atlantic in the first transatlantic solo flight.
Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey
1920's sports heros, Ruth set the baseball record of 60 home runs in one season and Dempsey was the heavyweight boxing champion.
Twenty-One Demands
Name for Japan's demands to the U.S., including its threat to close China to European and American trade. Resolved by the 1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement, a treaty which tried to settle differences between the U.S. and Japan.
Lansing-Ishii Agreement, 1917
Lessened the tension in the feuds between the U.S. and Japan by recognizing Japan's sphere of influence in China in exchange for Japan's continued recognition of the Open Door policy in China.
Versailles Conference, Versailles Treaty
The Palace of Versailles was the site of the signing of the peace treaty that ended WW I on June 28, 1919. Victorious Allies imposed punitive reparations on Germany.
Washington Disarmament Conference, 1921-1922
The U.S. and nine other countries discussed limits on naval armaments. They felt that a naval arms race had contributed to the start of WW I. They created quotas for different classes of ships that could be built by each country based on its economic power and size of existing navies.
Five Powers Treaty, Four Powers Treaty, Nine Powers Treaty
Five Powers Treaty: Signed as part of the Washington Naval Conference, U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy set a ten year suspension of construction of large ships and set quotas for the number of ships each country could build. Four Powers Treaty: U.S., Japan, Britain, and France agreed to respect each others possessions in the Pacific. Nine Powers Treaty: Reaffirmed the Open Door Policy in China.
5-3-1 ration
Tonnage ratio of the construction of large ships, it meant that Britain could only have 1 ship for every 3 ships in Japan, and Japan could only have 3 ships for every 5 ships in the U.S. Britain, U.S. and Japan agreed to dismantle some existing vessels to meet the ratio.
World Court
The judicial arm of the League of Nations, supported by several presidents.
Reparations
As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
Dawes Plan, Young Plan
Post-WW I depression in Germany left it unable to pay reparation and Germany defaulted on its payments in 1923. In 1924, U.S. Vice President Charles Dawes formulated a plan to allow Germany to make its reparation payments in annual installments. This plan was renegotiated and modified in 1929 by U.S. financier Owen Young.
Kellogg-Briand Pact, 1928
"Pact of Paris" or "Treaty for the Renunciation of War," it made war illegal as a tool of national policy, allowing only defensive war. The Treaty was generally believed to be useless.
Causes of the depression
Much debt, stock prices spiralling up, over-production and under-consuming - the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S.
Depression as an international event
Europe owed money. Germany had to pay, but did not have the money.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
Pushed by Congress in 1922, it raised tariff rates.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930
Congressional compromise serving special interest, it raised duties on agricultural and manufactured imports. It may have contributed to the spread of the international depression.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, RFC
Created in 1932 to make loans to banks, insurance companies, and railroads, it was intended to provide emergency funds to help businesses overcome the effects of the Depression. It was later used to finance wartime projects during WW II.
Bonus Army
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.
"Hooverville"
Name given to the makeshift shanty towns built in vacant lots during the Depression.
Clark Memorandum
1928 - Under Secretary of State Reuben Clark, 286 pages were added to the Roosevelt Corollary of 1904.
London Naval Conference
1909 - International Naval Conference held in London to adopt an international code of conduct for naval warfare.
Hoover Moratorium
June 30, 1931 - Acting on President Hoover's advice, the Allies suspended Germany's reparation payments for one year.
Manchuria, Hoover-Stimson Doctrine
1932 - Japan's seizure of Manchuria brought this pronouncement by Hoover's Secretary of State, Henry Stimson, that the U.S. would not recognize any changes to China's territory, nor any impairment of China's sovereignty.
Mexico's nationalization of oil
1938 - Mexico nationalized oil fields along the Gulf of Mexico which had been owned by investors from the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands because the companies refused to raise the wages of their Mexican employees.
Ambassador Morrow
Dwight Whitney Morrow served as the U.S. Ambassador to Mexico from 1927 to 1930, during the Mexican-American diplomatic crisis.
Good Neighbor Policy
Franklin Roosevelt described his foreign policy as that of a "good neighbor." The phrase came to be used to describe the U.S. attitude toward the countries of Latin America. Under Roosevelt's "Good Neighbor Policy," the U.S. took the lead in promoting good will among these nations.
Norris-LaGuardia (Anti-Injunction) Act, 1932
Liberal Republicans, Feorelo LaGuardia and George Norris cosponsored the Norris-LaGuardia Federal Anti-Injunction Act, which protected the rights of striking workers, by severely restricting the federal courts' power to issue injunctions against strikes and other union activities.
Election of 1932: candidates, issues
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection. FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
Twentieth Amendment
Written by George Norris and also called the "Lame Duck Amendment," it changed the inauguration date from March 4 to January 20 for president and vice president, and to January 3 for senators and representatives. It also said Congress must assemble at least once a year.
Wickersham Commission
National Law Enforcement Commission, so named after its chair, George Wickersham, it was a national commission on law observance and enforcement created by Hoover in 1929. Its 1930 report recommended the repeal of Prohibition.
Twenty-First Amendment
Passed February, 1933 to repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized light beer. Took effect December, 1933. Based on recommendation of the Wickersham Commission that Prohibition had lead to a vast increase in crime.
"Bank Holiday"
March 11, 1933 - Roosevelt closed all banks and forbade the export of gold or redemption of currency in gold.
Hundred Days
March 9, 1933 - At Roosevelt's request, Congress began a special session to review recovery and reform laws submitted by the President for Congressional approval. It actually lasted only 99 days.
"Relief, recovery, reform"
The first step in FDR's relief program was to establish the Civilian Conservation Corps in April, 1933. The chief measure designed to promote recovery was the National Industrial Recovery Act. The New Deal acts most often classified as reform measures were those designed to guarantee the rights of labor and limit the powers of businesses.
Brain trust
Many of the advisers who helped Roosevelt during his presidential candidacy continued to aid him after he entered the White House. A newspaperman once described the group as "Roosevelt's Brain Trust." They were more influential than the Cabinet.
Emergency Banking Relief Act, 1933
March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.
Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, 1933
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, which insures the accounts of depositors of its member banks. It outlawed banks investing in the stock market.
Gold Clause Act, 1935
It voided any clause in past or future contracts requiring payment in gold. It was enacted to help enforce 1933 legislation discontinuing the gold standard and outlawing circulation of gold coin.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
A federal agency which insures bank deposits, created by the Glass-Strengall Banking Reform Act of 1933.
National Industry Recovery Act (NIRA)
The chief measure to promote recovery was the NIRA. It set up the National Recovery Adminstration and set prices, wages, work hours, and production for each industry. Based on theory that regulation of the economy would allow industries to return to full production, thereby leading to full employment and a return of prosperity.
National Industrial Recovery Administration (NIRA)
Founded in 1933 to carry out the plans of the National Industry Recovery Act to fight depression. It established code authorities for each branch of industry or buisness. The code authorities set the lowest prices that could be charged, the lowest wages that could be paid, and the standards of quality that must be observed.
National Recovery Administration, "The Blue Eagle"
The NRA Blue Eagle was a symbol Hugh Johnson devised to generate enthusiasm for the NRA codes. Employers who accepted the provisions of NRA could display it in their windows. The symbol showed up everywhere, along with the NRA slogan "We Do Our Part."
Hugh Johnson
Director of the NRA.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA), Second AAA
1933 - The AAA offered contracts to farmers to reduce their output of designated products. It paid farmers for processing taxes on these products, and made loans to farmers who stored crops on their farms. The Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional.
Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
1936 - The second AAA appropriated funds for soil conservation paymnets to farmers who would remove land from production.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Created in April 1933. Within 4 months, 1300 CCC camps were in operation and 300,000 men between ages 18 and 25 worked for the reconstruction of cities. More than 2.5 million men lived and/or worked in CCC camps.
Federal emergency Relief Administation (FERA)
Appropriated $500 million for aid to the poor to be distributed by state and local government. Harry Hopkins was the leader of FERA.
Civil Works Admnistration (CWA)
Hired unemployed workers to do make-shift jobs like sweeping streets. Sent men ages 18-24 to camps to work on flood control, soil conservation, and forest projects under the War Department. A small monthly payment was made to the family of each member.
Public Works Administration (PWA), Harold Ickes
Under Secertary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the PWA distributed $3.3 billion to state and local governments for building schools, highways, hospitals, ect.
Works Progress Administration (WPA), Harold Hopkins, Federal Arts Project
The WPA started in May 1935 and was headed by Harold Hopkins. It employed people for 30 hours a week (so it could hire all the unemployed). The Federal Arts Project had unemployed artists painting murals in public buildings; actors, musicians, and dancers performing in poor neighborhood; and writers compiling guide books and local histories.
Home Owners' Local Corporation (HOLC)
Had authority to borrow money to refinance home mortgages and thus prevent forclosures. It lent over $3 billion to 1 million homeowners.
Federal Housing Authorities (FHA)
1934 - Created by Congress to insure long-term, low-interest mortgages for home construction and repair.
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
1934 - Created to supervise stock exchanges and to punish fraud in sercurities trading.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), Senator Norris
A public corporation headed by a 3-member board. The TVA built 20 dams, conducted demonstration projects for farmers, and engaged in reforestation to rehabilitate the area.
Rural Electrificaion Committee (REA)
May 1936 - Created to provide loans and WPA labor to electric cooperatives to build lines into rural areas not served by private companies.
National Youth Association (NYA)
June 1935 - Established as part of the WPA to provide part-time jobs for high school and college students to enable them to stay in school and to help young adults not in school find jobs.
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
Recognition of the U.S.S.R.
November 1933 - In an effort to open trade with Russia, mutual recognition was negotiated. The financial results were disappointing.
Section 7A of the NRA
Provided that workers had the right to join unions and to bargain collectively.
Wagner Act
May 1935 - Replaced Section 7A of the NIRA. It reaffirmed labor's right to unionize, prohibited unfair labor practices, and created the National Labor Relations Board.
National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
Created to insure fairness in labor-managment relations and the mediate employers' desputes with unions.
Fair Labor Standards Act, maxium hours and minimum wage
June 1938 - Set maximum hours at 40 hours a week and minimum wage at 20 cents an hour (gradually rose to 40 cents).
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), John L. Lewis
Originally formed by leaders within the AFL who wanted to expand its principles to include workers in mass produciotn industries. In 1935, they created coalation of the 8 unions comprising the AFL and the United Mine Workers of America, led by John L. Lewis. After a split within the organization in 1938, the CIO was established as a separate entity.
Sit-down strikes
The strikers occupied the workplace to prevent any production.
Dust Bowl, Okies, John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath
1939 - Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath was about "Okies" from Oklahoma migrating from the Dust Bowl to California in the midst of the Depression.
Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins
The nation's first woman cabinet member.
Elanor Roosevelt
A strong first lady who supported civil rights.
Keynesian Economics
The British economist John Maynard Keynes believed that the government could pull the economy out of a depression by increasing government spending, thus creating jobs and increasing consumer buying power.
Deficit spending
FDR's admnistration was based on this concept. It involved stimulating consumer buying power, business enterprise, and ultimately employment by pouring billions of dollars of federal money into the economy even if the government didn't have the funds, and had to borrow money.
Monetary policy, fiscal policy
In monetary policy, government manipulates the nation's money supply to control inflation and depression. In fiscal policy, the government uses taxing and spending programs (including deficit spending) to control inflation and depression.
Revenue Act
1935 - Increased income taxes on higher incomes and also increased inheritance, large gft, and capital gains taxes.
Liberty League
Formed in 1934 by conservatives to defend business interests and promote the open shop.
Coalition of the Democratic Party: Blacks, unions, intellectuals, big city machines, South
Union took an active role providing campaign funds and votes. Blacks had traditionally been Republican but 3/4 had shifted to the Democratic party. Roosevelt still recieved strong support from ethnic whites in big cities and Midwestern farmers.
Huey Long, Share the Wealth, Gerald K. Smith
The Share the Wealth society was founded in 1934 by Senator Huey Long of Louisiana. He called for the confiscation of all fortunes over $5 million and a 100% tax on annual incomes over $1 million. He was assassinated in 1935 and his successor Gerald K. Smith lacked the ability to be a strong head of the society.
Father Charles Coughlin
Headed the National Union for Social Justice. Began as a religious radio broadcaster, but turned to politics and finance and attracted an audiance of millions from many faiths. Promoted inflationary currency, anti-sematism.
Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month.
Election of 1936: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rebublican - Governor Alfred Landon, Union Party - William Lemke Issues were the New Deal (which Landon criticized as unconstitutional laws), a balanced budget, and low taxes. Roosevelt carried all states but Maine and Vermont.
Literary Digest Poll
1936- An inaccurate poll taken on upcoming the presidential election. It over-represented the wealthy and thus erroneously predicted a Republican victory.
Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
Social Security Act
One of the most important features of the Second New Deal established a retirement for persons over 65 funded by a tax on wages paid equally by employee and employer.
Court-packing plan
Because the Supreme Court was striking down New Deal legislation, Roosevelt decided to curb the power of the Court by proposing a bill to allow the president to name a new federal judge for each who did not retire by age 70 and 1/2. At the time, 6 justices were over the age limit. Would have increased the number of justices from 9 to 15, giving FDR a majority of his own appointees on the court. The court-packing bill was not passed by Congress.
Chief Justice Charles Evans Hughes
Began to vote with the more liberal members in the liberal-dominated Supreme Court. In June a conservative justice retired and Roosevelt had an opportunity to make an appointment, shifting the Court's stance to support of New Deal legislation.
"Conservative Coalition" in Congress
1938 - Coalition of conservative Democrats and Republicans who united to curb further New Deal legistators. Motivated by fears of excessive federal spending and the exspansion of federal power.
Robinson-Patman Act
1937 - Amended federal anti-trust laws so as to outlaw "price discrimination," whereby companies create a monopolistic network of related suppliers and vendors who give each other more favorable prices than they do others.
Miller-Tydings Act
1937 - Amended anti-trust laws to allow agreements to resell products at fxed retail prices in situations involving sales of trademarked good to a company's retail dealers.
Hatch Act
1939 - Prohibited federal office holders from participating actively in political campaigns or soliciting or accepting contributions.
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
1923 - The hospital fired employees because it didn't want to pay them what was reqired by the minimum wage law for women and children.
Gitlow v. New York
1925 - Benjamin Gitlow was arrested for being a member of the Communist party. The New York court upheld the conviction.
Schecter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.
May, 1935 - The U.S. Supreme Court declared the National Industrial Recovery Act unconstitutional. It held that Condress had improperly delegated legislative authority to the National Industrial Recovery Administration and that the federal government had exceeded its jurisduction because Schecter was not engaged in interstate commerce.
Butler case
1936 - Declared AAA unconstitutional because it involved Congress levying a tax against the general wellfare.
NLRB v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp.
April 1937 - Sumpreme Court upheld the Wagner Act, ensuring the right to unionize, in a 5 to 4 decision. This decision signaled a change in the Court's attitude towards support of the New Deal and lead FDR to abandon his court-packing plan.
West Coast Hotel v. Parrish
1937 - Supreme Court upheld the Washington state minum wage statute.
Darby Lumber Co. case
1941 - Overruled the Hamme case of 1918 by upholding the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
Curtiss-Wright Export Corp. case
1936 - Upheld embargo impossed on arms destined for nations at war in the "Chaco War" that had broken out in 1932 between Bolivia and Paraguay.
Montevideo Conference
The first of several Pan-America conferences held during the period between World War I and World War II concerning mutual defense and corporate between the countries of Latin America. The U.S. renounced the right to intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries.
Rio de Janeiro Conference
1933 - Delegation of 21 Latin American leaders, including Summer Will and Aswalina Avanna. Led to the break in diplomatic relations between the U.S. and the Latin American powers.
Buenos Aires Conference
1936 - The U.S. agreed to submit all disputes from the Americas to arbitration.
Lima Conference
1938 - Last of the Pan-American conferences held before the outbreak of World War II. Issued the Declaration of Lima asserting the unity of the Latin American nations and their determination to resist al forms of foreign agression.
Declaration of Panama
1939 - Latin American governments drew a security line around the Western hemisphere and warned away foreign agressors.
Act of Havana
1940 - Approved by the 21 delegates of the Pan-American Union. Declared that any Latin American nation was permitted, in the name of defense, to take over and administer any European possession in the New World.
Jones Act
1916 - Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
Tydings-McDuffie Act, 1934, Philippines
In 1933 the U.S. had proposed granting the Philippines independence in 12 years while retaining its military bases there. The Philippines rejected the offer and asked for immediate commonwealth status with independence by 1946. The U.S. accepted their offer in the Tydings-McDuffie Act.
Nye Committee
Gerald Nye of North Dakota believed that the U.S. should stay out of foreign wars.
"Merchants of Death"
Liberal isolationists' term for companies which manufactured armaments. They felt that the companies were undermining national interests by assisting agressor nations.
Neutrality legislation
1935 - Upon the outbreak of war, all American exports would be embargoed for 6 months.
1936 - Gave the president the authority to determine when a state of war existed and prohibited loans to beligerents.
1937 - Gave the president the authority to determine whether a civil war was a threat to world peace and prohibited arms sales to beligerents.
Spanish Civil War (1936-1935), Franco
Spain had established a leftist, democratic government in the 1930s. In July, 1936, Gen. Fransisco Franco and other army leaders staged a coup and installed a right-wing fascist government, touching off a civil war between loyalist Republican forces (aided by Russia) and Franco's Fascist party (aided by Mussolini and Hitler).
Ethiopia
Mussolini invaded, conquering it in 1936. The League of Nations failed to take any effective action against Mussolini, and the U.S. just looked on.
Mussolini (1883-1945)
Fascist dictator of Italy from 1922-1943. Wanted to recreate the Roman Empire.
Japan attacks China, Chiang Kai-Shek
Chinese leader Kai-Shek defeated the Communists in China, sending them back to Russia and instituting the Kuomintang government. Then in 1931, Japan seized Manchuria from China.
Panay Incident
1937 - On the Yantze River in China, Japanese aircraft sank an American gunboat escorting tankers. The U.S. accepted Japan's appologies.
Quarantine Speech
1937 - In this speech Franklin D. Roosevelt compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease, saying democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations.
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), Nazism
German facist dictator. Leader of the National Socialist Workers Party, or Nazis. Elected Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he quickly established himself as an absolute dictator.
Munich Conference, appeasement, Neville Chamberlain
1938 - Hitler wanted to annex the Sudetenland, a portion of Czechoslovakia whose inhabitents were mostly German-speaking. On Sept. 29, Germany, Italy, France, and Great Britain signed the Munich Pact, which gave Germany the Sudetenland. British Prime Minister Chamberlain justified the pact with the belief that appeasing Germany would prevent war.
Austria annexed
March 12, 1938 - After the Austrian leader resigned under growing Nazi pressure, German troops set up a government called the Ansehluss, which was a union of Germany and Austria.
Nonagression pact between Germany and U.S.S.R.
August 23, 1939 - Germany and Russia agreed not to attack each other, which allowed Hitler to open up a second front in the West without worrying about defending against Russia. Granted Western Poland ot Germany, but allowed Russia to occupy Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Eastern Poland. Hitler intended to break the pact.
Invasion of Poland, Blitzkrieg
September, 1939 - Germany used series of "lightning campaigns" to conquer Poland. The invasion caused Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
Axis Powers
A series of treaties in 1936 and 37 between Germany, Italy, and Japan created what was called the "Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis." The coutries were thereafter refered to as the Axis Powers.
"Cash and carry" revision of neutrality
Stated the warring nations wishing to trade with the U.S. would have to pay cash and carry the goods away in their own ships. Benefitted the Allies, since German ships could not reach the U.S. due to the Allied blockades.
Fall of France
Summer, 1941 - Germany invaded France and set up the Vichey government, which lasted until the Allies invaded in 1944.
America First Committee
1940 - Formed by die-hard isolationists who feared the U.S. going to war.
Isolationism, Charles Lindbergh
Lindbergh, known for making the first solo flight across the Atlantic, became politically controversial because he was an isolationist and pro-Germany.
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies
1940 - Formed by isolationists who believed that the U.S. could avoid going to war by giving aid in the form of supplies and money to the Allies, who would fight the war for us.
Smith Act
Required fingerprinting and registering of all aliens in the U.S. and made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the U.S. government.
Tojo (Hideki)
Prime Minister of Japan (1941-1944) and leading advocate of Japanese military conquest during World War II.
Destroyer Deal
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain. (Destroyers were major warships that made up the bulk of most countries' navies.) Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
Election of 1940: candidates, issues
Democrat - Franklin D. Roosevelt, Republican - Wendel Wrillkie (lost by almost 5 million votes). The issue was the New Deal, about which there was a major debate.
"Lend lease"
March 1941 - Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment ot any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies without technically becoming a co-belligerent.
Atlantic Charter
August 1941 - Drawn up br FDR and Churchill with eight main principles:
Renunciation of territorial agression
No territorial changes without the consent of the peoples concerned
Restoration of sovereign rights and self-government
Access to raw material for all nations
World economic cooperation
Freedom from fear and want
Freedom of the seas
Disarmament of agressors
Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Japanese relocation
The bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that the Japanese living in the U.S. were actually spies. FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.
Bond drives
Celebrities and government representatives traveled around the U.S. selling government bonds ot raise money for the war effort. Extremely successful in raising funds.
War Production Board
Converted factories from civilian to military production. Manufacturing output tripled.
War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases. Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
Office of Price Administration (OPA)
Government agency which successful combatted inflation by fixing price ceilings on commodities and introducing rationing programs during World War II.
General Dwight D. Eisenhower (1870-1969)
Served as the supreme commander of the western Allied forces and became chief of staff in 1941. Sent to Great Britain in 1942 as the U.S. commander in Europe.
General Douglas MacArthur
Military governor of the Philippines, which Japan invaded a few days after the Pearl Harbor attack. MacArthur escaped to Australia in March 1942 and was appointed supreme commander of the Allied forces in the Pacific. Recieved the Medal of Honor.
Genocide, "Final Solution"
Genocide is destruction of a racial group. Hitler's "Final Solution" was the genocide of non-Aryan peoples.
Second front
The Russians were suffering heavy casualties fighting the German invasion of Russia. Stalin urged the Allies to open a "second front" in the west to relieve the pressure on the Russians. The Allies did so, but only after a long delay.
D-Day
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Stalingrad
Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered. First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.
Winston Churchill
Prime minister of Great Britain during World War II.
Casablanca Conference
Jan. 14-23, 1943 - FDR and Chruchill met in Morocco to settle the future strategy of the Allies following the success of the North African campaign. They decided to launch an attack on Italy through Sicily before initiating an invasion into France over the English Channel. Also announced that the Allies would accept nothing less than Germany's unconditional surrender to end the war.
Cairo Conference
November, 1943 - A meeting of Allied leaders Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek in Egypt to define the Allies goals with respect to the war against Japan, they announced their intention to seek Japan's unconditional surrender and to strip Japan of all territory it had gained since WW I.
Tehran Conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
"Unconditional surrender"
It means the victor decides all the conditions the loser must agree to. The Allies wanted Germany and Japan to agree to unconditional surrender.
Okinawa
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance became stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bulge" into the Allied lines. The Allies stopped the German advance and threw them back across the Rhine with heavy losses.
Manhattan Project
A secret U.S. project for the construction of the atomic bomb.
Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)
Physics professor at U.C. Berkeley and CalTech, he headed the U.S. atomic bomb project in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He later served on the Atomic Energy Commission, although removed for a time the late 1950's, over suspicion he was a Communist sympathizer.
Atomic bomb
A bomb that uses the fission of radioactive elements such as uranium or plutonium to create explosions equal to the force of thousands of pounds of regular explosives.
Hiroshima, Nagasaki
First and second cities to be hit by atomic bombs, they were bombed after Japan refused to surrender and accept the Potsdam Declaration. Hiroshima was bombed on August 6, 1945 and Nagasaki was bombed on August 9, 1945.
Yalta Conference
February, 1945 - Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta to make final war plans, arrange the post-war fate of Germany, and discuss the proposal for creation of the United Nations as a successor to the League of Nations. They announced the decision to divide Germany into three post-war zones of occupation, although a fourth zone was later created for France. Russia also agreed to enter the war against Japan, in exchange for the Kuril Islands and half of the Sakhalin Peninsula.
Potsdam Conference
July 26, 1945 - Allied leaders Truman, Stalin and Churchill met in Germany to set up zones of control and to inform the Japanese that if they refused to surrender at once, they would face total destruction.
Partitioning of Korea, Vietnam, Germany
The U.S. played a role in dividing these countries into sections, each of which would be ruled by different authority figures and managed by one of the Allied powers.
Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970)
He formed the French resistance movement in London immediately after the French surrender at Vichy. He was elected President of the Free French government in exile during the war and he was the first provisional president of France after its liberation.
Winston Churchill (1874-1965), "Iron Curtain" speech
March, 1946 - He reviewed the international response to Russian aggression and declared an "iron curtain" had descended across Eastern Europe.
Joseph Stalin (1879-1953)
After Lenin died in 1924, he defeated Trotsky to gain power in the U.S.S.R. He created consecutive five year plans to expand heavy industry. He tried to crush all opposition and ruled as the absolute dictator of the U.S.S.R. until his death.
Bretton Woods Conference
The common name for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference held in New Hampshire, 44 nations at war with the Axis powers met to create a world bank to stabilize international currency, increase investment in under-developed areas, and speed the economic recovery of Europe.
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
In a meeting near Washington, D.C., held from August 21 to October 7, 1944, U.S., Great Britain, U.S.S.R. and China met to draft the constitution of the United Nations.
San Francisco Conference and U.N. Charter
1945 - This conference expanded the drafts of the Yalta and Dumbarton Oaks conferences and adopted the United Nations Charter.
United Nations: Security Council, General Assembly, Secretary-General
Only the Security Council could take action on substantive issues through investigation. The General Assembly met and talked. A secretariat, headed by a Secretary-General, was to perform the organization's administrative work.
Atomic Energy Commission
Created in 1946 to oversee the research and production of atomic power.
Superpowers
The name give to the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. because of their dominance in the arms race and economic struggle for world power. Both countries had nuclear bombs by the late 1940's and 1950's.