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GEOL 100 Final Exam
Terms in this set (22)
Which of the following are layers of Earth's interior based on differences in physical properties?
Lithosphere, asthenosphere, outer core, inner core
Which of the following is a reason the lithosphere can move independently from the asthenosphere below it?
When force is applied to the asthenosphere, it flows relative to the rigid lithosphere above it.
Earth's (BLANK) acts as a solenoid magnet, in which an electrically-charged, iron-rich fluid flows and consequently produces a magnetic field.
Imagine we have a paleomagnetic record from Iowa that is 315 million years old. The ancient magnetic inclination from 315 million years ago was found to be 5 degrees.
Which of the following statements is most likely correct based on this information?
Over the last 315 million years, Iowa moved north from near the equator (0 degrees latitude) to its current latitude of 42 degrees north.
What are apparent polar wander paths?
The apparent change in the location of the Earth's magnetic poles, recorded in the paleomagnetic record of a continent or tectonic plate.
How do the three apparent polar wander paths support the hypothesis that plates move over time?
The apparent polar wander paths are very different from each other. The north magnetic pole cannot be in three different places at the same time. Therefore the plates (and their continents) must be moving, not the magnetic pole.
Imagine two plates made of oceanic lithosphere meet at a convergent plate boundary. There is no difference in the two plates' chemical composition, but one of the plates is denser and will subduct, or sink, below the other.
Which of the options below best explains why one oceanic plate is denser than the other in this situation?
The oceanic plate that subducts is likely older and colder than the other plate.
Subduction, or sinking of a plate, does not occur at which type of convergent boundary?
Continental-continental convergent boundaries
A ________ is a solid mass made up of _________ .
rock; minerals or mineral-like substances
Which of the statements below correctly describes one of the five defining criteria for being a mineral?
Minerals only occur as solids.
Which of the following statements best describes the physical property of minerals called cleavage?
Cleavage is the splitting of minerals along natural planes of weakness.
What is the difference between the luster and the streak of a mineral?
Luster describes the appearance of light reflected off a mineral. Streak is the color of the powder made from a mineral.
Which of the following groups of minerals has many economic uses due to being chemically stable and having the ability to adsorb large quantities of water?
Clay group minerals
The plane of cleavage in muscovite occurs __________ , because the chemical bonds __________ .
between the sheets of silicon, oxygen, and aluminum; involving potassium (K) are relatively weak
Out of the four groups of silicate minerals listed below, which shares the most oxygen between the silica tetrahedra (i.e., the highest silicon to oxygen ratio)?
Why are the minerals graphite and diamond considered to be mineral polymorphs?
Graphite and diamond have the same composition (i.e., carbon), but graphite has a different crystalline structure than diamond.
Which of the following groups of minerals are nonsilicate minerals? (Select all options that apply)
Sulfates, Oxides, and Carbonates
Which of the following is a correct economic use of a common nonsilicate mineral?
Calcite (CaCO3) is used in cement.
____________________ has an important _____________________ in that it readily reacts with acid to form carbon dioxide.
Calcite (carbonate mineral); chemical property
How do deposits of gypsum, a sulfate mineral used in drywall manufacturing, typically form?
Gypsum precipitates from evaporating ocean water
What is an important economic use of phosphate minerals?
Phosphate minerals are used to produce fertilizer.
What is one way native elements differ from other nonsilicate minerals?
Native element minerals are made up of only one element whereas other nonsilicate minerals consist of different cations and anions.
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