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120 terms

Nutrition chapter one

STUDY
PLAY
Features of a chronic disease include all of the following except
it produces sharp pains.
(what it actually includes: develop slowly, last a long time, progresses gradually)
Characteristics of an acute disease include all of the following except
it progresses slowly
(what it actually includes: it causes sharp symptoms, runs a short course, develops quickly)
All of the following are results of making poor food choices except
when made over just a single day, they exert great harm to your health.
(Actually results: Over the long term, they will reduce lifespan in some people and will not affect lifespan in some people. They can promote heart disease and cancer.)
A child who developed a strong dislike of noodle soup after consuming some when she was sick with flu is an example of a food-related
Negative association
A parent who offers a child a favorite snack as a reward for good behavior is displaying a food behavior known as
Positive association
A person who eats a bowl of oatmeal for breakfast every day would be displaying a food choice most likely based on
Habit
Which of the following represents a food choice based on negative association?
An elderly gentleman who refuses a peanut butter and jelly sandwich because he deems it a child's food
The motive for a person who alters his diet due to religious convictions is most likely his
Values
A person viewing an exciting sports match of her favorite team and eating because of nervousness would be displaying a food choice behavior most likely based on
Emotional comfort
Excluding fast-food establishments, approximately what percentage of restaurants in the United States show an ethnic emphasis?
60%
Terms that describe a food that provides health benefits beyond its nutrient contribution include all of the following except
phytonutritional food

(Terms that do describe it neutraceutical, designer food,functional food)
What is the term that defines foods that contain nonnutrient substances whose known action in the body is to promote well-being to a greater extent than that contributed by the food's nutrients?
Functional Food
Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as
phytochemicals
The complete lining of a person's digestive tract is renewed approximately every
3-5 days
By chemical analysis, what nutrient is present in the highest amounts in most foods?
Water
Approximately how much water (lbs) would be found in a 120-lb person?
72 lbs
Which of the following is not one of the six classes of nutrients?
Fiber
( 6 classes = water, protein, minerals, vitamins, fats & carbohydrates)
A nutrient needed by the body and that must be supplied by foods is termed a(n)
Essential nutrient
All of the following are classified as macronutrients except
Calcium
(macronutrients= carbohydrate, protein & fat)
Which of the following is an example of a macronutrient?
Protein
Which of the following is classified as a micronutrient?
Iron
Which of the following is an organic compound?
Vitamin C
An essential nutrient is one that cannot be
made in sufficient quantities by the body.
Which of the following most accurately describes the term organic?
Substances with carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
Which of the following is an organic nutrient?
Fat
(not organic nutrient= water, oxygen, calcium)
Approximately how many nutrients are considered indispensable in the diet?
40
Which of the following cannot add fat to the body?
inorganic nutrients
Which of the following is an example of a micronutrient?
Vitamin C
Which of the following nutrients does not yield energy during its metabolism?
Vitamins
(yields energy= fat, protein, carbohydrates)
How much energy is required to raise the temperature of one kilogram (liter) of water 1° C?
1 kilocalorie
Gram for gram, which of the following provides the most energy?
fats
Food energy is commonly expressed in kcalories and in
Kilojoules
International units of energy are expressed in
kilojoules
Approximately how many milliliters are contained in a half-cup of milk?
120
A normal half-cup vegetable serving weighs approximately how many grams?
100
A weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcalories, which includes 30 g of fat. Approximately what percentage of the total energy is contributed by fat?
19
A diet provides a total of 2200 kcalories, of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from protein. How many grams of carbohydrate are contained in the diet?
220
What is the kcalorie value of a meal supplying 110 g of carbohydrates, 25 g of protein, 20 g of fat, and 5 g of alcohol?
755
Which of the following nutrient sources yields more than 4 kcalories per gram?
Plant fats
Which of the following is a result of the metabolism of energy nutrients?
Energy is released
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of most foods?
They contain mixtures of the three energy nutrients, although only one or two may predominate
In the body, the chemical energy in food can be converted to any of the following except
Light energy
(can be converted to =mechanical, chemical, heat)
When consumed in excess, all of the following can be converted to body fat and stored except
Vitamin C
How many vitamins are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
13
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the vitamins?
inorganic
(characteristics= essential, destructible, K-calorie free)
Which of the following is a feature of the minerals as nutrients?
Some become dissolved in body fluids
How many minerals are known to be required in the diet of human beings?
16
Which of the following is not a characteristic of the minerals?
Unstable to light
(Characteristics= Yield no energy, Stable in cooked foods, Structurally smaller than vitamins)
Overcooking a food is least likely to affect which of the following groups of nutrients?
Minerals
Your friend Carrie took a daily supplement of vitamin C and stated that she felt a lot better. Her experience is best described as a(n)
Ancedote
The study of how a person's genes interact with nutrients is termed
nutritional genomics.
What is the meaning of a double-blind experiment?
Neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in the control or experimental group
In the scientific method, a tentative solution to a problem is called the
Hypothesis
Among the following, which is the major weakness of a laboratory-based study?
The results cannot be applied to human beings
What is the benefit of using controls in an experiment?
The subjects are similar in all respects except for the treatment being tested
What is the benefit of using a large sample size in an experiment?
Chance variation is ruled out
A clinical trial must involve
human beings as subjects.
What is the benefit of using placebos in an experiment?
All subjects receive a treatment
In nutrition research, observations of the quantities and types of foods eaten by groups of people and the health status of those groups are known as
epidemiological studies.
You have been asked to help a top nutrition researcher conduct human experiments on vitamin C. As the subjects walk into the laboratory, you distribute all the vitamin C pill bottles to the girls and all the placebo pill bottles to the boys. The researcher instantly informs you that there are two errors in your research practice. What steps should you have done differently?
Prevented yourself from knowing what was in the pill bottles, and distributed the bottles randomly to the subjects
Overeating and gaining body weight is an example of a
positive correlation.
An increase in exercise accompanied by a decrease in body weight is an example of a
negative correlation.
Before publication in a reputable journal, the findings of a research study must undergo scrutiny by experts in the field according to a process known as
peer review.
All of the following sets of values are included in the Dietary Reference Intakes except
LUT
(included=AI, RDA, EAR)
Which of the following is not a set of values within the Dietary Reference Intakes?
Estimated Average Allowances
The smallest amount of a nutrient that is consumed over a prolonged period that maintains a specific function is called the nutrient
requirement.
If a group of people consumed an amount of protein equal to the average requirement for their population group, what percentage would receive insufficient amounts?
50
A health magazine contacted you for your expert opinion on what measure best describes the amounts of nutrients that should be consumed by the population. Your reply should be:
The Recommended Dietary Allowances because they represent the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people.
Recommended Dietary Allowances may be used to
assess dietary nutrient adequacy for individuals.
Recommended Dietary Allowances are based on the
Estimated Average Requirement.
The amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of about 98% of a population is termed the
Recommended Dietary Allowance.
The RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowances) for nutrients are generally
designed to meet the needs of almost all healthy people.
How are the RDA for almost all vitamin and mineral intakes set?
High, to cover virtually all healthy individuals
Which of the following is not a feature of the Adequate Intake (AI) and the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?
The percentage of people covered is known for both values
All of the following features are shared by the RDA and the AI except
neither is useful for evaluating nutrition programs for groups of people.
Which of the following is a purpose of both the Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake?
Setting nutrient goals for individuals
Bob consumes about 2500 kcalories per day, which is apportioned as 150 g of fat, 140 g of carbohydrate, and 150 g of protein. What would be the appropriate revisions to help Bob adjust his nutrient intake so that it matches the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges?
70 g fat, 156 g protein, 313 g carbohydrate
Which of the following represents a rationale for setting the recommendation for energy?
Because a margin of safety would result in excess energy intake for a large number of people, the figures are set at the average energy intake
What does the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of a nutrient represent?
The maximum amount from all sources that appears safe for most healthy people
What set of values is used to recommend the average kcalorie intake that maintains population groups in energy balance?
Estimated Energy Requirement
The percentage of kcalorie intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases are termed the
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges.
What is the AMDR for carbohydrate?
45-65%
Which of the following figures falls within the carbohydrate range of the AMDR?
50%
What is the AMDR for protein?
10-35%
What is the upper range of fat intake in the AMDR?
35%
What is the AMDR for fat?
20%-35%
If a person consumed the upper AMDR limit for protein as part of a diet containing 2500 kcalories, approximately how many grams of protein would be ingested?
219
What is the weight (lbs) of the "reference" adult male?
154
What is the weight (lbs) of the "reference" adult female?
126
All of the following describe features for application of the recommended nutrient intakes except
the recommendations also apply to sick people.
The Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to
plan and evaluate diets for healthy people.
Which of the following is used to detect nutrient deficiencies?
Assessment techniques
As a registered dietitian at Jones Hospital, you are instructed to write a policy statement on nutrition assessment procedures for all new patients. Which of the following are the most useful parameters for the nutrition assessment of individuals?
Historical information, anthropometric data, physical examinations, laboratory tests
Which of the following is an anthropometric measure?
Body weight
Inspection of hair, eyes, skin, and posture is part of the nutrition assessment component known as
physical examination.
Which of the following is used to determine the presence of abnormal functions inside the body due to a nutrient deficiency?
Laboratory tests
Which of the following represents the usual sequence of stages in the development of a nutrient deficiency resulting from inadequate intake?
Declining nutrient stores, abnormal functions within the body, and overt signs
Which of the following would most likely lead to a primary nutrient deficiency?
Inadequate nutrient intake
What type of deficiency is caused by inadequate absorption of a nutrient?
Secondary
A subclinical nutrient deficiency is defined as one that
is in the early stages.
Which of the following is an overt symptom of iron deficiency?
Headaches
To identify early-stage malnutrition, a health professional would use which of the following parameters?
Laboratory tests
What entity coordinates nutrition-related activities of federal agencies?
The National Nutrition Monitoring program
The goal of Healthy People is to
set goals for the nation's health over the next 10 years.
Which of the following does not describe a national trend in eating habits of Americans?
We eat more high-fiber foods
The most common causes of death today in the United States include all of the following except
tuberculosis.
(Most common causes = cancer, diabetes, heart disease)
Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition?
4
Which of the following leading causes of death in the U.S. does not bear a relationship to diet?
Pneumonia and influenza
(does have a relationship with diet= cancer, diabetes mellitus, heart disease and cancer)
Factors known to be related to a disease but not proven to be causal are called
risk factors.
Which of the following statements defines the association between a risk factor and the development of a disease?
The more risk factors for a disease, the greater the chance of developing that disease
Which of the following factors makes the greatest contribution to deaths in the United States?
Tobacco
What behavior is the major cause of death in the United States?
Tobacco use
Who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information?
Registered dietitian
All of the following are minimum requirements for becoming a registered dietitian except
completing up to a three-week clinical internship or the equivalent.
Which of the following describes the legal limitations, if any, for a person who disseminates dietary advice to the public?
A license to practice as a nutritionist or dietitian is required by some states
Which of the following individuals is most likely to possess the least amount of nutrition training?
Certified Nutritionist
For which of the following titles, by definition, must the individual be college educated and pass a national examination administered by the American Dietetic Association?
Registered Dietician
Which of the following best describes a college-educated nutrition and food specialist who is qualified to make evaluations of the nutritional health of people?
Registered dietitian
A person who assists registered dietitians has the formal title of
dietetic technician.
All of the following are recognized, credible sources of nutrition information except
Who's Who in Nutrition.