PSY 150 - CH 5 (exam 2)

What is learning and why is it important?
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Terms in this set (15)
- learning associations (mental pairings) b/t events
-Ivan Pavlov: found dogs salivated at sight of food, began studying learning in dogs (bell and food)
-conditioned = learned
-unconditioned = automatic
unconditioned stim: stimulus that automatically elicits response (food)
unconditioned response: automatic, reflexive response to US, (salivation due to food)
Conditioned stimulus: originally neutral stim gains meaning thru pairings with US (tuning fork)
Conditioned response: learned response to CS (salivation due to tuning fork)
Extinction: eliminating CR by presenting CS(fork) without US(food), cs no longer reliable predictor of US
Re-acquisition: repairing US+CS, happens much faster than initial learning.
Stimulus generalization: CR can be elicited by stimuli similar to CS, but not identical (very adaptive)
Stimulus discrimination: ability to distinguish among similar to stimuli, respond only to actual CS
1. condition attitudes: +/- evaluation of something, Pokemon examples (flashing words and images associated with Pokemon)
2. conditioning emotions: Little Albert (white rat and banging), conditioned emotional response, generalized fear of similar objects
3. therapy applications - systematic desensitization: therapy technique for phobias/fears > associate relaxation with feared situation/object, gradual exposure to fear of stimulus
4. conditioning biology - biological preparedness: innate readiness to fear threatening stimulus, less learning needed to condition fear, taste aversion: CC avoidance of food/taste that made you sick
5. Medical applications: conditioned immune system, rats and sugar water lead to taste aversion then extinction, heightened immune system
Describe schedules of partial reinforcement: fixed interval, variable interval, fixed ratio, variable ratio. Give examples of each schedule, and also be able to describe pattern of behavior elicited by each schedule.FI: after set of time, reinforce desire behavior (wait 5 min, push lever and reward, wait 5 again), slow behavior, picks up right after reinforcement VI: after changing interval of time, reinforce behavior (press lever, 2 min for reward, then 8, then 5), slow but steady behavior FR: after set # of desired behaviors, give reinforcer (give reward after push lever 10 times), step wise pattern of behavior VR: after changing # of desired behavior give reinforcer (food pellet after 6 lever presses, then 4, then 11), highest rate of responding, most resistant to extinctionWhat is observational learning?learning by watching othersWhat are mirror neurons, and how do they relate to the concept of learning?-neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing someone else engage in same actions 1. understanding other: incorporate others goals when creating mirrored recreations, predict behavior 2. mimicry: ability to copy 3. empathy: recreate others physical and emotional states (correlated with mirror system activity 4. self awareness: mirror neurons turn inward? consciousness representation of earlier neural activityWhat is insight learning?suddenly understanding something (aha moment) Wolfgang experiment with chimps, think creatively, use tools given to retrieve goalWhat is latent learning?learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it, not immediately expressed, stored for later use Mice example, regular reward, no reward, no reward till day 11