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injury produced by an external force, may affect crowns, root and alveolar bone; may result in fractures of teeth and bone; may result in injuries such as intrusion, extrusion and avulsion
most often involve ant teeth, most from accidents, may be enamel only, enamel/dentin, or enamel dentin and pulp
regressive alternation of tooth structure when tooth subjected to abnormal stimuli
seen along periphery of the root; often associated with: reimplanted tooth, abnormal mechanical forces, trauma, chronic inflammation, tumors, cysts, impacted teeth or idopathic (I don't know) causes
within crown or root; pulp chamber pulp canals and surrounding dentin; from trauma, pulp capping, and pulp polyps, asymptomatic, appears as round-to-ovoid radiolucency in midcrown midroot section of tooth
diffuse calcification of pulp chamber and pulp canals; pulp cavity of decreased size; assoc w aging; incidental radiographic finding
attrition, abrasion, caries, restorations, trauma or abnormal mechanical forces act as irritants to pulp and stimulate production of secondary dentin which annihilation of pulp cavity
calcifications found in pulp chamber or pulp canals; cause unknown, appear as round, ovoid (shaped like an egg) or cylindrical radiopacities
radiographic appearance, clinical features and microscopic appearance
DX of periapical radiolucencies are based on what?
localized mass of chronically inflammed granulation tissue @ apex of a NONVITAL tooth; results from pulpal death and necrosis;
lesion that develops over a long pd of time; cystic degeneration takes place w/in a periapical granuloma and results in cyst; 50-70% all cysts in mouth
localized collection of pus in periapical region; results in pulpal death; may be acute or chronic
acute periapical abscess
painful-intense, throbbing, constant; nonvital tooth, sensitive to pressure, heath, percussion, increased widening of PDL
chronic periapical abscess
asymptomatice-pus drains through bone or PDL space; gumboil (parulis) may be seen in apical region @ site of drainage; lamina dura can't be seen between root apex and radiolucent lesion
results from a bacterial infection with walls of perio tissues from preexisting perio condition; pain is most common symptom
most common radiopacity seen in adults!!! tooth most freq involved is mand 1st molar; tooth nonvital-usually has a large carious lesion or restoration; no tx necessary
osteosclerosis, iopathic periapical osteosclerosis; below apices of vital, non carioius teeth, cause unknown; lesion not attached to tooth; asymptomatic
excess deposition of cementum on root surfaces, from supraeruption, inflammation or trauma, apical area MOST affected, teeth vital, lamina dura and pdl space are normal
potential food traps, accumulation of food and debris, and bacterial deposits, contribute to perio disease,
Defective restorations can negatively lead to what?
stainless steel and chrome crowns
temporary restorations; thin and don't absorb xrays, outlines and margins may appear smooth and regular, do not appear to fit tooth well
post and core restoration
seen in endodontically treated teeth. cast metal, radiodense, appears radiopaque,, _____extends into pulp canal
thin radiopage line outlining prepared tooth may be evident thru the slightly radiopaque ________; line represents cement
careful visual and digital exam enables clinician to distinguish this restoration
often used in temp crown or filling, this is least dense of all the nonmetal restorations and appears radioluicent and is barely visible
zinc phosphate, cement, zinc-oxide eugenol paste;
What are the base materials used as cavity liners?
used to enhance retention of amalgam or composite, appears screw like or cylindrical radiopacties
removable partial dentures
appear densely radiopaque or slightly depending on construction materials
dark stains, chalky white, discoloration on interproximal ridge
Various color changes may be detected for caries..
caries between two teeth, seen just below the contact point, difficult to impossible to examine with explorer
moderate interproximal caries
extends more than halfway into the enamel but does not involve DEJ, class II
advanced interproxmial caries
extends to or thru DEJ, and into dentin but does not go through dentin more than halfway to the pulp, class III
severe interproximal caries
extends thru enamel thru dentin and more than halfway twd pulp, class IV, involves both dentin and enamel and may appear clinically as a cavitation into tooth
involving chewing surfaces in post teeth; method of choice is clinical exam, early caries hard to detect radiographically
moderate occlusal caries
extends into DEJ; very thin radiolucent line, located under enamel of occlusal surface,
severe occlusal caries
extends into dentin and appears as large radiolucency; extends under enamel of occlusal surface, apparent clinically, appears as a cavitation in tooth
buccal and lingual caries
caries difficult to detect on radiograph bc of superimposition of densities of normal tooth structure; best detected clinically with explorer
root surface caries
cementum and dentin located just below cervical region involved, enamel NOT involved, bone loss and recession precede caries process; easily detected clinically
man pm and man molar area
Most common locations of exposed roots are the roots of _______ and _______.
secondary caries, occurs adjacent to existing restorations, due to inadequate cavity prep, defective margins, or incomplete caries removal prior to placement of restoration
advanced or severe caries that affects numerous teeth; children with poor dietary habits and adults with decreased salivary flow.
unilocular radiolucent lesions
one compartment, tend to be small and nonexplansible, corticated or noncorticated
unilocular lesion with corticated borders
thin, well-demarcated radiopaque rim of bone at edges, usually benign and slow growing
unilocular lesion with noncorticated borders
does not have a thin radiopaque rim of bone @ edges, edges appear fuzzy or poorly defined, may be either benign or malignant
mulilocular radiolucent lesions
multiple radiolucent compartments, frequently expansible, usually benign with potential aggressive growth
well defined, localized: large caries, restorations, pulpitis, man 1st molar is the most common
well-defined localized radiopaque area surrounded by a uniform radiolucent halo : benign cementoblastoma (young adults, mand molar or premolar)
multiple radiopacities that appear to overlap or flow together: Osteitis deformans(Pagets-men over 50) or florid osseous dysplasia (middle aged black women over 40, asymptomatic, bilateral post man region)
irregular, poorly defined pattern, may represent a malignant condition: osteosarcoma(most common, swelling, pain, lose teeth, age 10-25, most is mand area.. sunburst affect) or chondrosarcoma (malignant neoplasm, RARE, poor prognosis)
granular or pebbled radiopacity, resembles pulverized glass or texture of an orange peel, Fibrous dysplasia, osteitis deformans and osteopetrosis (rare, oblidterates bone in marrow, starts at infancy, child becomes deaf and blind)
neutralizes the alkaline developer, produces acidic environment required by fixing agent
controls developer, prevents it from developing the exposed and unexposed silver halide crystals, most effective in stopping development of unexposed crystals, prevents image fogging
alkali sodium carbonate
activates developing solution agent- only active in alkaline, softens gelatin
antioxidant sodium sulfite
extends life of elon and hydroquinone, prevents developer from oxidizing in presence of air
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