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AP Euro Review - French Revolution, Napoleon, and Europe's Reaction
Terms in this set (53)
Assembly of Notables
Called for in 1787 by Louis XVI. Made up of leading aristocrats and churchmen gathered to see if they would be willing to pay a new land tax that would apply to everyone regardless of social status. They refused, instead demanded a greater share of governing the nation.
A clergyman who wrote a famous pamphlet about how the Third Estate is the true political representation of France and how it needs to be given more power.
cahiers de doleances
Lists of grievances presented to the King by various electoral assemblies in the Estates General. Still loyal to the monarchy but wanted to lessen absolutism.
Tennis Court Oath
Oath between the members of the Third Estate in which they promised to continue to meet until a new constitution was established.
Commune of Paris
Formally recognized by Louis XVI after the storming of the Bastille. A then-new municipal government.
Marquis de Lafayette
Led the National Guard, which Louis XVI allowed to be formed after the Bastille. A champion of liberty, having been involved with the American Revolution.
During the French Revolution, a period filled with rumors about the nobility ganging up on the peasants. This resulted in massive attacks on noble estates. Led to the aristocrats renouncing their feudal rights.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Similar to the American Declaration of Independence, declared the rights of French citizens. Written by Lafeyette. Very Enlightenment-based.
Olympe de Gouges
Wrote The Rights of Women in 1791, in which she argued that women should have the right to be educated, to control their own property, and to initiate divorce. Didn't demand full rights for women, however.
Civil Constitution of the Church (or Clergy)
Legislation passed in 1790 that made the Church a department of the state. Bishops were to be chosen by assemblies of parish priests, who were also elected by others. Clergy became civil servants paid by the state, had to swear loyalty to France.
Pope Pius VI
Pope that denounced the Civil Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
Count of Artois
Youngest brother of Louis XVI, leader of the emigres, or the nobles who fled France and were working to restore their regime. Encouraged Louis to flee France, which led to his capture and ultimate execution.
French town on the border of the Netherlands where Louis and his family were caught.
French political club that was represented in the National Assembly. Most popular club during the revolution. Wanted to execute the king, a powerful centralized government.
French political club leading the National Assembly, named for the department in southwestern France where many members came from. Favored starting a revolutionary war to free people living in absolutist states. Wanted to simply exile the king, laissez-faire, maintain some degree of local autonomy.
Those who do not wear fancy pants. A rather radical part of the French Revolution.
Duke of Brunswick
A Prussian commander who issued a manifesto which promised to destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed.
William Pit the Younger
English Prime Minister who was quite enthusiastic about the French Revolution, believing that France would emerge from it greater than ever.
British Whig leader who was cautious about the French Revolution. Saw that they needed to keep thei present political structure and seek to achieve evolutionary rather than revolutionary change.
Legislative body formed to come up with a new constitution that would end the constitutional monarchy.
The radical Jacobins in the Convention who met on a raised platform.
Group in the middle of the Convention who were not directly tied to either the Jacobins or the Girondins.
Idea that the government shouldn't play an active role in regulating the economy.
A counter-revolution in western France in 1793 based on anger towards restrictions placed on the Church.
Committee of Public Safety
Created by the Convention during the Reign of Terror. Assumed almost dictatorial power of France. Leaders include Danton, Carnot, and Robsepierre (Jacobins).
A sans-culottes hero who was stabbed to death by Girondin Charlotte Corday.
Head of the French military who issued the proclamation calling for a "levee en masse" in August 1793, the first time that all citizens were called on to serve their country.
Republic of Virtue
The government that the Jacobins wanted. To achieve it, they felt that they had to destroy all traces of the old monarchy. Included a new calendar, attacked religion.
Cult of the Supreme Being
Established by Robespierre to move people away from the corrupting influence of the Church. Turned Notre Dame into the Temple of Reason.
An extreme radical faction of the Reign of Terror led by Robespierre. Violently anti-Christian and wanted to see the government implement further economic controls.
Those opposed to Robespierre, arrested and executed him. Led the reconstruction after the revolution, abolished the Paris Commune.
New French government created by the Thermidorians. Led by an executive council of five men each called director. A two-house legislature made up of the Council of the Ancients which voted on that proposed by the Council of Five Hundred.
French emperor who first gained power after being caused to break up a royalist rebellion in Paris, protecting the Directory (which he eventually got rid of). Also, a former Jacobin.
What Napoleon deemed himself in his constitution, widely received by the public.
A vote by the people.
Concordat with Rome
1801. Declared that Catholicism was the religion of the majority of the French but didn't establish it as the state religion. Kept Church in control of the state. Also made it so that the papacy could select bishops but only from a list created by the First Consul. The state would pay clerical salaries and all clergy had to swear an oath supporting the state. Finally, the Church was to give up its claims to those lands confiscated during the Revolution and France was to switch back to the regular calendar.
Civil Code of 1804
Created by Napoleon, also called the Napoleonic Code. Provided for a single unitary legal system for all of France, upheld natural rights. Reversed advances made by women.
Treaty of Amiens
1802. Between France and Britain. Declared peace between the two countries.
Battle of Trafalgar
October 21, 1805. Battle between French and English navies, English won. Destroyed any hope of the French landing in England.
Joining of Great Britain, Austria, and Russia in an alliance. Napoleon went after them.
Battle of Ulm
1805. Battle led by Napoleon against the Austrians. Nappy won.
A great French victory over Russia.
Confederacy of the Rhine
Loose grouping of 16 German states placed under the influence of France that replaced the Holy Roman Empire.
Battle of Jena
Battle between France and Prussia after Prussia joined the Third Coalition. Obliterated the Prussian army, French occupied Berlin.
Russian tsar who decided it was necessary to make peace with France.
Treaty of Tilsit
Treaty between Russia (Alex I) and France (Nap). Ended up saving Prussia (although it was shrunken to 1/2 its previous size, forced to be a French ally).
Kind of economic war attempted by Nappy. Banned British goods from arriving on the continent. Just weakened the economies of the states that Nap had conquered, did little to advance French economy.
defeat of Napoleon
Caused by the peninsula war in Spain, growing French nationalism, and the 1812 invasion of Russia.
Baron von Stein
Prussian administrator who worked with Count von Hardenberg to continue monarchical power and aristocratic privilege. Brought reforms, though, and ended the Junker monopoly over the owernship of land and abolished serfdom.
Duke of Wellington
Led British forces against Napoleon.
Congress of Viena
1814. A meeting between the four great powers (Brit, Austria, Prussia, Russia) and a few others to determine what to do with post-Napoleonic France. Wanted to prevent nationalism and liberalism. Created new states around France to control it (Netherlands, Prussian lands along the Rhine, Piedmont to Genoa), reduced France to 1792 size.
Battle of Waterloo
The escaped Napoleon and his army vs. the British and Prussian armies. Nap defeated again. 1815.
Name given to Napoleon's return.
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