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Every year nearly ____________ million cases are tried in U.S. courts and one American in every ____________ is directly involved in litigation.

twenty-five; nine

More than ____________ percent of all court cases in the United States are heard in ____________ courts.

99; state

Cases of ____________ law are those in which the government charges an individual with violating a statute that has been enacted to protect the public health, safety, morals, or welfare.


Doctor Jane Doe delivered a baby while drunk. The baby died during delivery and the parents sued the doctor. What kind of case would that be?

Tort case

The doctrine of stare decisis

is reasoning from precedent.

Which of the following is NOT a case in which the federal courts would have jurisdiction?

A case involving burglary of a house

Which of the following concepts is the least related to the other concepts?

Judicial policy making

For the most part, original jurisdiction courts in the federal judiciary are

Federal district courts.

Which of the following factors affect how federal district court judges are chosen?

a. legal experience and good character
b. ideological views similar to the president's
c. senatorial courtesy

The country is divided into ____________ regional judicial circuits, each of which has a U.S. Court of Appeals.


The U.S. Supreme Court is made up of one chief justice and ____________ associate justices.


Judicial review was established in the case of ____________.

Marbury v. Madison

The authority and the obligation to review any law or lower-court decision where a substantial issue of public law is involved is the definition of

judicial review.

The courts do not have the power to render advisory opinions to legislatures or agencies about the constitutionality of proposed laws or regulations. This is the definition of the court access requirement called

cases and controversies.

Parties in a case must show ____________; that is, they must show that they have a substantial stake in the outcome of a case.


Most cases reach the Supreme Court through

writs of certiorari.

The three steps in the Supreme Court's procedures, in order, are

preparing briefs, giving oral argument, making and writing opinions.

Justices who disagree with the majority decision of the Court may choose to publicize the character of their disagreement in the form of a

dissenting opinion.

Justices who agree with the majority decision but disagree with the legal reasoning will likely file a

concurring opinion.

Why did Congress confer on federal courts the authority to issue writs of habeas corpus?

distrust of southern courts after the Civil War

A member of the U.S. Supreme Court believes that she should defer to the views of Congress when interpreting federal statutes. This person is an advocate of

judicial restraint

Which of the following cases is NOT an example of judicial activism?

a. Bush v. Gore
b. Roe v. Wade
c. Brown v. Board of Education

Today's Supreme Court can best be described as ideologically


Which of the following was NOT a limitation on the federal courts for much of American history?

All were limitations on the court for most of American history.

A _____________ is a legal action by which a group of individuals with common interests can file a suit on behalf of everyone who shares that interest.

class-action suit

According to the text, in recent years, the Supreme Court

has become more involved in political issues.

If you were an outside interest group and wanted to influence the Supreme Court's ruling on a case it will hear next month, what action would have the most influence?

filing an amicus curiae brief

According to the authors, the Court's most important decisions were

those that protected the freedoms of those whose beliefs or race made them unpopular.

Judicial review refers to

the power of the judiciary to examine the constitutionality of state and federal laws.

In recent years, the Supreme Court has become

more conservative and has shown more restraint.

Where is the right to privacy listed in the Constitution?

The right to privacy is not spelled out anywhere in the Constitution.

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the 2000 presidential election?

The Supreme Court ruled that the decision had to be made by the U.S. House of Representatives as spelled out in the Constitution.

The Supreme Court has jurisdiction over WHICH of the following cases?

a. cases between two or more states
b. appeals of decision from the U.S. appellate courts
c. appeals of decisions from cases that began in state courts

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