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Cohort refers to a group of people who

are born within ta few years of one another

According to Psychoanalytic theories, human development is mainly determined by

our unconscious motives and drives

Sigmund Freud and Erikson are best known for their contributions to theory


A father wants his son to help his mother was the dishes every night. According to social learning theory, the father should:

help out with the dishes himself.

Pavlov's dogs salivated at the sound of the bell because they

learned to associate the bell with food

According to erikson an infant must resolve the crisis of

trust vs mistrust

The scientist who first demonstrated classical conditioning was

Ivan Pavlov

When a person can understand new experiences using his existing thought processes, he has achieved

cognitive equilibrium

A major pioneer in cognitive theory was


Which of the following is the best example of the application of epigenetic theory?

Only individuals with a gene for schizophrenia and a traumatic early life event are likely to develop schizophrenia.

In order, Freud's fist three stages of development

oral anal and phallic

Researchers have an ethical obligation to choose topics that

are of major importance to society

The values assumptions customs clothing technologies and art that a group of people have developed over the years as a design for living are referred to as their


An epigenetic effect that influences the sex of a child is the

age of the mother

It is much easier for children to learn a second language than it is for adults.

Sensitive period

Behaviorism is a theory and is also referred to as theory

grand and learning

A manner of studying human development that stresses the fluctuations that occur constantly throughout life is referred to as the

dynamic-systems theory

Traits capacities and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of


When an emergent theory becomes a consistent and recurring source of research and becomes comprehensive and widely applied it has become what type of theory


The central thesis of sociocultural theory is that human development is the result of a dynamic interaction between developing persons and their

surrounding society and culture

An individual's socioeconomic status includes

level of education

If a group of people have the same ancestors religion and language they said to be part of the same

ethnic group

An individual's socioeconomic status includes

level of education

The study of juman development may best be described as an attempt to understand

how and why people change across the life span

When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this process


How do infants react to their mothers when the mother speaks to them in a monotone

They tend to be wary and disengaged

Within the scientific method once a researcher poses a question her next step is to

develop a hypothesis

Which of the following is not one of the domains of human development discussed in the text

chronological development

Identify an example of scientific observation

watching mother-child interactions at home

Our gentic structure is set

at the moment of conception

When doing research with children which of the following must be obtained

the parents informed consent

A researcher in human development who takes an eclectic approach

uses parts of several theories rather than sticking to one particular theory

What does current research tell us about the resolution of the nature-nurture controversy

We can no longer attribute behavior to one or the other since virtually all human behaviors result from a complex interaction between nature and nurture.

In Vygotsky's idea of social apprenticeship a mentor draws the child into zone of

proximal development

If you were to see a man from the nation of Fiji but had never seen someone from there before, you would still recognize him as a human being. This cognitive process is called


To understand levels of human development, Urie Bronfenbrenner advocated

Ecological systems approch

Scientific method order

Begin with curiosity
develop a hypothesis
test hypothesis
draw conclusion

At approximately what age will a child begin to utter her first two sentences

21 months

Typically stranger wariness is first noticeable

9 months

What is the most likely reason that parents would choose a co sleeping arrangements for their infant.

because of cultural norms

The sense that is the least developed at birth is


Marasmus results froms

protein calorie malnutrition in early infancy

A typical child at 24 months weighs about

30 pounds

A parent and a toddler meet someone the toddler does not know but who makes the parent nervous. The toddler will probably

act anxious

Which of the following demonstrates the Babinski reflex

An infants toes fan upward when her foot is stroked

The term holophrase is used to denote

the infants use of one word to express a whole tought

Which of the following best defines the term affordance

the opportunity for perception and interaction that is offered by people the environment and objects

Newborns prefer

speech over most other sounds

The swiss scientist who emphasized that infants are active learners and that early learning is based on sensory and motor skills was

Sigmund Freud

A process stimulation the body's immune system to defend the body against a contagious disease is called


hours infants sleep

17 hours

Sigmund Freud was a

Psychoanalytic theorist

Which is not a reflex facilitates feeding


The average North American newborn measures

20 inches

Studies comparing breast feeding with a bottle show that

breast fed babies have fewer allergies and stomachaches

baby talk

high pitch

Parents with more education are most likely to start toilet training

later in the child's development

Children reach half their adult height by age

2 years

The language acquisition device lad was proposed by Chomsky to explain

The universal inborn ability to lean language

The first crisis of life according to Erikson

trust vs mistrust

Infant daycare is of high quality if care givers emphasize among other things

sensorimotor exploration

sign of secure attachment

a child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver

Which of the following acronyms might you use to remember the Big Five personality traits


If a child's weight is in the 50th percentile this means that

50 percent of his cohorts weigh less than he does

An illusion of a drop between one surface and another is called

visual cliff

If we place a dot of rouge on an 18 month old's nose and stand the child in front of a mirror she may then touch her nose. This shows that the child has some


When infants turn their heads and suck in response to a touch on the cheek they are demonstrating the

Babinski reflex

When a baby is upset because a caregiver is leaving the baby is exhibiting

separation anxiety

Geoffrey enjoys spending time with his 1 year old son. Compared with his wife Geoffrey's interaction with their son is likely to be

more playful

Assume that an abusive caregiver shakes an infant to get her to stop crying. The infant stops crying. The infant stops crying because of what mechanisms

Blood vessels in her brain rupture and neural connections break

Which of the following is not on of the four categories of temperament suggested by the new york longitudinal study


A crucial aspect of synchrony is

mutual interaction

during sensorimotor stage the main task is to

sense and motor skills

A basic nerve cell in the central nervous system is called


Proximity seeking and contact maintaining behaviors are displays of


The objects continue to exist when they cannot be seen defines

object permanence

What is a Apgar scale

It is a test that is given 1min after birth to quickly evaluate an infant's health condition. This will determine if the infant needs emergency medical attentions is needed.

Apgar scale measures

five vitals signs heart rate breathing muscles tone color and reflexes.

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