Open-range ranching came to an end due to
a.) overproduction of beef and declining prices
b.) federal support for irrigated agriculture
c.) the range wars between cattlemen and sheepherders
d.) fencing off the plains with barbed wire
e.) increase in cattle production in the Midwest and East
The first successful oil well was drilled in
d.) New Jersey
Which of the following best describes the message of this cartoon? ("JOIN, or DIE." cartoon)
a.) A plea for keeping the Union together on the eve of the Civil war
b.) An appeal to the colonies to unify against the threat from France
c.) An appeal to slaveholding states against the Missouri Compromise
d.) A call for Native American tribes to unite against white settlers
e.) A plea to end sectional differences over tariff policy
Which of the following statements is NOT true about the Coercive Acts?
a.) They were directed against all the colonies.
b.) They were called the Intolerable Acts by the colonists
c.) They significantly strengthened colonial unity.
d.) They led to a boycott of British goods in the colonies
e.) They were the British response to the Boston Tea Party
The individual who best represented the Enlightenment in colonial America was
a.) Anne Hutchinson
b.) George Whitefield
c.) Alexander Hamilton
d.) William Bradford
e.) Benjamin Franklin
The principle that freedom of speech as guaranteed under the First Amendment is not absolute was stated in which early twentieth-century Supreme Court decision?
a.) Marbury v. Madison
b.) Gibbons v. Ogden
c.) Brown v. Board of Education
d.) Schenck v. U.S.
e.) Miranda v. Arizona
The American journalist William Allen White wrote that the United States was "tired of issues, sick at heart of ideals, and weary of being noble." This best describes the mood of the
The "Back to Africa" movement, which resulted in the creation of Liberia in 1822, found support in which twentieth-century group?
a.) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
b.) Universal Negro Improvement Association
c.) Urban League
d.) Southern Christian Leadership Conference
e.) Congress of Racial Equality
Between 1920 and 1939, American foreign policy included all of the following EXCEPT
a.) attempts to develop international agreements on disarmament
b.) improved relations with Latin America
c.) nonrecognition of territory acquired by force
d.) concern over the war debt and reparations issue
e.) active intervention to prevent aggression
The "Insular Cases" decision of the Supreme Court declared that
a.) the United States had the right to establish a Canal Zone in Panama
b.) indigenous people in newly acquired colonies did not necessarily have the same rights as Americans
c.) Puerto Rico and the Philippines could be lawfully annexed
d.) newly acquired territories could eventually become states
e.) annexation of the Hawaiian Islands had been unlawful
Which of the following events occurred LAST?
a.) The South Carolina Ordinance of Secession
b.) Abraham Lincoln's inauguration
c.) The surrender of Fort Sumter
d.) The secession of Virginia
e.) The secession of Alabama
The Ballinger-Pinchot controversy involved
a.) a diplomatic incident between the United States and France
b.) the regulation of the trusts
c.) child-labor laws
d.) conservation policy
e.) legislation to restrict immigration
Shays' Rebellion suggests that the most important problem facing the United States after the Revolution was
a.) the ongoing conflict with Native Americans
b.) the British refusal to recognize American claims to the Northwest Territory
c.) economic problems caused by debt and high tax
d.) disputes over stats' rights and the authority of the federal government
e.) the danger of an open slave revolt in the South
Jacob Coxey's 1994 march on Washington, D.C., called for
a.) tougher immigration restrictions
b.) a government takeover of the railroads
c.) an increase in the supply of paper money
d.) recognition of the legitimacy of labor unions
e.) generosity in granting pensions o Civil War veterans
The Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for
a.) a ban on the importation of slaves into the Northwest Territory
b.) a survey of the Northwest Territory and its division into townships
c.) the procedure of which new states would be admitted to the Union
d.) protection of Indians by prohibiting white settlement West of the Appalachians
e.) the establishment of a series of forts along the Mississippi
The first federal law to restrict immigration, passed in 1882, was aimed at
a.) stopping Mexicans fro crossing the border without first obtaining a visa
b.) excluding Chinese immigrants
c.) stopping immigration from Eastern Europe
d.) restricting the number of people coming into the United States
e.) preventing smuggling of illegal aliens over the Canadian border
Wilson's Fourteen Points did NOT include the
a.) creation of an independent Czechoslovakia
b.) creation of an independent Poland
c.) return of Alsace-Lorraine to France
d.) creation of an international organization of nations
e.) creation of an international peacekeeping force
One of the consequences of the Great Awakening was
a.) a closer sense of unity between England and its colonies
b.) that the Church of England was adopted by the colonies as an officially established church
c.) the discussion of new ideas in religion
d.) a challenge to traditional beliefs
e.) a growing awareness of people in the colonies of their rights as Englishmen
The "Critical Period" in American history refers to the
a.) decade between 1860 and Lincoln's election
b.) United States under the Articles of Confederation
c.) era of Jacksonian democracy
d.) New Deal
e.) rise of the United States to the statues of world power from 1898 to 1920
During the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the issue that triggered the debate over stats' rights was
a.) tariff policy
b.) expansion of slavery
c.) Indian removal
d.) internal improvements
e.) rechartering the Bank of the United States
Which of the following sources would NOT be useful in understanding the military campaigns of the Civil War?
a.) Newspaper accounts
b.) Diaries kept by soldier
d.) Presidential speeches
e.) Official unit histories
Which of the following statements regarding the Monroe Doctrine is true?
a.) The United States committed itself to provide military aid to countries in the Western Hemisphere that wanted to overthrow colonial rule.
b.) Throughout most of the nineteenth century, the effectiveness of the Monroe Doctrine depended on British naval supremacy
c.) Monroe renewed George Washington's idea of not becoming involved in entangling foreign alliances.
d.) The Doctrine was rejected by the major European powers as a violation of international law.
e.) European acceptance of the Doctrine established the United States as a world power.
The injunction as a court order was often used in late nineteenth and early twentieth century to
a.) break up trusts
b.) help farmers in danger of losing their farms
c.) stop strikebreaking
d.) prevent labor unions from striking
e.) protect blacks from civil rights abuses
Like the Republican part in 1912, the Democrats were divided in 1948. In addition to Truman, whihc Democrats ran for President in 1948?
II. Norman Thomas
III. Henry Wallace
IV. George Wallace
a.) I only
b.) IV only
c.) I and II only
d.) II and III only
e.) I, II, III only
The type of dwelling shown above was used by Native Americans in the (picture of buildings made in the cliff-side)
a.) Mississippi Valley
b.) Northeast Woodlands
c.) Great Plains
d.) Pacific Northwest
Richard Nixon's early success in politics was largely based on his
a.) support for civil rights legislation
b.) expertise in foreign policy, particularly China
d.) backing of an expansion of the New Deal programs
e.) military service during World War II
The most likely cause of the increase in urban poverty eighteenth-century was that
a.) when people found it more difficult to acquire property, they went to the cities looking for work
b.) urban-dwelling people had more children than those living in rural areas
c.) rural jobs paid more than city jobs
d.) there was greater economic opportunity in rural areas
e.) the enclosure movement was brought over from England to displace colonial farmers
Which of the following events in the Cold War occurred most recently?
a.) Hungarian uprising
b.) Berlin airlift
c.) U-2 incident
d.) launching of Sputnik
e.) Castro in power in Cuba
The most important aspect of the Jacksonian democracy was
a.) abolition of the property qualification
b.) granting of suffrage to free blacks
c.) permitting limited suffrage rights to women
d.) abolition of poll taxes
e.) creation of distinct political parties
The railroad route linking New Orleans and Lost Angeles shown on the map was made possible by
a.) the Mexican Cession
b.) the military defeat of the Apache Indians
c.) the success of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads
d.) the Gadsden Purchase
e.) California's independence from Mexico
During the American Revolution, the state that benefited the most from a demand for foodstuffs was
The United States annexed the Hawaiian Islands during the the administration of
a.) Benjamin Harrison
b.) Grover Cleveland
c.) William McKinley
d.) Theodore Roosevelt
e.) William Howard Taft
The American antislavery movement split in 1840 largely over the issue of
a.) the participation of women
b.) gradual; vs. immediate emancipation
c.) civil rights for free blacks in the North
d.) support for black abolitionists
e.) backing Martin Van Buren for President
The narrowing gap between rural and urban population in the second half of the nineteenth century is best explained by the
a.) migration of former slaves to the Northern cities after the Civil War
b.) impact of immigration on the growth of cities
c.) closing of the frontier
d.) rapid industrialization of the country
e.) increasing mechanization of American agriculture
The major nations at the Washington Naval Conference in 1922 agreed to
I. limit the number of ships in their navies
II. support the U.S. Open Door Policy in China
III. Punish any nations violating the agreement
IV. keep the status quo in the Pacific area
a.) I only
b.) II only
c.) I and III only
d.) I and IV only
e.) II, III, and IV only
Which of the following describes the purpose of the Main Law of 1851?
a.) banning the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages
b.) prohibiting the consumption of alcoholic beverages
c.) women's suffrage at the state level
d.) state-by-state slavery abolition laws
e.) women retaining legal rights to their property after marriage
The Louisiana Territory was ruled by nations in the following order:
a.) Spain, France, Mexico, United States
b.) Spain, France , Spain, United States
c.) France, Spain, United States
d.) Spain, France, United States
e.) France, Spain, France, United States
The provisions of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo included all of these EXCEPT
a.) pay $15 million to Mexico
b.) set the Texas boundary at the Rio Grande
c.) yield California to the United States
d.) yield New Mexico to the United States
e.) yield the Mesilla Valely of Arizona to the United States
The purpose of the Open Door Policy was to
a.) open china to free trade
b.) guarantee Cuban independence
c.) give the United States a sphere of influence in Asia
d.) restrict the effect of dollar diplomacy
e.) justify military occupation of the Philippines
"Yesterday I came to Washington with a group of writers to protest the treatment given the bonus army in Washington. Coming to a President of my country to voice such a protest isn't a thing I like to do. With me it is like this: I am intensely interested in the lives of the common everyday people, laborers, mill hands, soldiers, stenographers, or whatever they may be. . . .I have been looking, watching, finding out what I could about American life."
The person most likely to have received this message was
a.) Herbert Hoover
b.) Franklin D. Roosevelt
c.) Pelham Glassford
d.) Douglas MacArthur
e.) J. Edgar Hoover
According to the Gentlemen's Agreement of 1908, Japan agreed to
a.) give Korea its independence
b.) respect the territorial integrity of China
c.) discourage its citizens fro emigrating to the United States
d.) maintain the balance of naval forces in the Pacific
e.) allow American companies free access to Japanese markets
"No matter how often you fail, keep on. But if you wish to get rich quickly, then bleed the public and talk patriotism. This may involve bribing public officials and dodging public burdens, the losing of your manhood and the soiling of your fingers, but that is the way mot of the great fortunes are made in this country now."
This was most likely the view of
a.) Horatio Alger
b.) John Peter Altgeld
c.) Andrew Carneigie
d.) Henry Clay Frick
e.) Russell Conwell
President Woodrow Wilson responded to the sinking of the Lustitania in 1915 by
a.) demanding that the Germans stop using submarine warfare
b.) ordering Americans not to be passengers on belligerent powers' ships
c.) requiring exports to Europe to be sent only on American merchant ships
d.) severing diplomatic relations with Germany
e.)demanding an apology from Kaiser Wiklhelm II
The "Crime of 1873" was
a.) a blatant frauds exposed in the 1872 presidential election
b.) the buying and selling of votes in attempts to defeat the Bland-Allison Silver Purchase Act
c.) revelations of the Credit Mobilier railroad construction scandal
d.) the decision by Congress to stop the coinage of silver
e.) the refusal of Congress to main on the gold standard
The amendments to the Constitution proposed by the Hartford Convention were intended to
a.) limit the power of the federal government
b.) increase the authority of the President at the expense of Congress
c.) resolve the problems of slavery in the territories west of the Mississippi
d.) bring about the immediate end to the War of 1812
e.) make sure that Republicans controlled the Congress
Which is the correct order of chronology of these inventions?
a.) reaper, steamboat, telegraph, cotton gin
b.) cotton gin, steamboat, reaper, telegraph
c.) steamboat, cotton gin, telegraph, reaper
d.) cotton gin, reaper, steamboat, telegraph
e.) cotton gin, steamboat, telegraph, reaper
The Interstate Commerce Act included all of the following EXCEPT
a.) publication of railroad rate schedules
b.) creation of a commission to hear problems of shippers
c.) prohibition of railroad rebates
d.) declaration of short-haul differences as unlawful
e.) establishment of fixed rate schedules for railroads to charge shippers
The Tariff of 1816 was notable as being the first tariff
a.) that tried to protect the development of American industry
b.) to raise revenue to pay federal government expenses
c.) to be passed by Congress
d.) to place a tax on imported foreign cotton
e.) to shut out competitive foreign products
Which of the following statements regarding the draft and the Union Army is true?
a.) More than half of the men serving in the Union army were draftees.
b.) Congress passed the draft law at the beginning of the Civil War.
c.) A potential draftee could hire a substitute or buy his war out of service
d.) There was widespread public support for the draft because of the patriotism generated by the war.
e.) The minimum draft age was set at sixteen.
The post-World War II program of economic assistance to Western Europe was known as
a.) the Alliance for Progress
d.) the Marshall Plan
e.) The Point Four Program
The purpose of the New England Confederation was to
a.) unite all the English colonies in a common bond)
b.) organize colonial defense in New England
c.) ease Parliament's burden in administering
d.) prevent the smuggling of enumerated articles
e.) join with the Indians of the area to promote tolerance and coexistence
Which of the following statements about the organization of the United Nations is accurate?
a.) The permanent members of the Security Council are the United States, the Soviet Union (Russia), France, and Great Britain
b.) The General Assembly can override a veto by one of the permanent members of the Security Council
c.) The Soviet Union originally had three votes in the General Assembly.
d.) The votes of two of the permanent members are needed to veto a measure in the Security Council.
e.) The Nationalist government in Taiwan represents China at the United Nations.
Which of the following occurred most recently?
a.) Shay's Rebellion
b.) the Ratification of the Articles of Confederation
c.) the publication of The Federalist
d.) the Constitutional Convention
e.) the Northwest Ordinance
Henry Wallace ran as the Progressive candidate for President in 1948 because he
a.) opposed Truman's policy on civil rights
b.) saw himself as the true heir to the New Deal
c.) favored a less hostile attitude toward the Soviet Union than Truman did
d.) was defeated by Dewey in the Republican primaries
e.) wanted to use the army to force the Soviet Union out of Easter Europe
The chief weapon used by Andrew Jackson in his dispute with the National Bank was
a.) his decision to print more paper money
b.) to deposit government money in state banks
c.) to give unqualified support to the Tariff of 1832
d.) agreed to raise a common army to defend themselves
e.) accepted the Stamp Act if they were allowed to elect members to Parliament
In the Charles River Bridge case, the Supreme Court declared that
a.) government should regulate business for the good of society
b.) states could regulate banks within their borders
c.) vaguely worded clauses in charter grants could be decided in favor of the public interest
d.) the strict constructionist interpretation was unconstitutional
e.) interstate connections came under federal authority
The Declaration of Independence was based on the political philosophy of
a.) Edumnd Burke
b.) Thomas Paine
c.) Thomas Hobbes
d.) John Locke
e.) Thomas Jefferson
Lyndon Johnson's Great Society programs did NOT include
a.) the Office of Economic Opportunity
b.) the Alliance for Progress
c.) Head Start
e.) the Elementary and Secondary Education Act
According to the Hay-Buneau-Varilla Treat,
a.) Panama agreed to let the United States build an isthmian canal on terms favorable to the United States
b.) France sold its canal company to the Panamanian government
c.) Colombia agreed to sell the Canal zone for $25 million
d.) the United States agreed to assume Panama's Colombian debt
e.) Nicaragua was denied the right to build an isthmian canal
In the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison asserted that
a.) the states, not the Supreme Court, were the final judges of the limits of federal power.
b.) the states were creations of the federal government.
c.) the federal judiciary was the sole arbiter of the constitutionality if federal and state laws.
d.) the "implied powers" of the Constitution gave the president the power to enforce the Alien and Sedition Acts.
e.) a "dual presidency" modeled on ancient Rome's consulship would serve to protect the states from federal government
At the Seneca Falls Woman's Rights Convention organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1948, the delegates
a.) organized a political party to nominate candidates for public office.
b.) unanimously endorsed the ratification of an amendment to the Constitution giving women the right to vote in nation elections.
c.) accepted the prevailing notion that women were endowed with weaker intellectual abilities than men.
d.) issued the pamphlet, Treatise on Doestic Economy, instructing women on how to make their homes more efficent and more moral.
e.) declared that "all men and women are created equal" and that "the history of mankindis a history of repeated injuries and usurpations on the part of ma toward woman..."
In 1831, Nat Turner organized and led a slave insurrection in Southhampton County, Virginia, that resulted in
a.) the gradual and compensated emancipation of the majority of slaves in Virginia.
b.) increased miscegenation between the white and slave populations of the slave states
c.) the immediate emancipation and eventual transportation of Nat Turner and his followers to Santo Domingo
d.) Congress passing a stringent fugitive slave law.
e.) the Southern states expanding their militia systems and strengthening the slave codes.
At the Hartford Convention which was held from December 15, 1814, to January 5, 1815, the Federalist delegates did all the following EXCEPT
a.) manifested their discontent with the War of 1812.
b.) asserted the doctrine of states' rights.
c.) recommended a constitutional amendment which would require a two-thirds vote of Congress to declare war and admit new states.
d.) renominated DeWitt Clinton, governor of New York, for president
e.) attempted to secure financial assistance from Washington because the shores of New England ware being blockaded by British squadrons
W.C. Handy, Joey "King" Oliver, and "Jelly Roll" Morton were known for their accomplishments in
c.) the civil rights movement
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the Home Loan Bank Act of 1932 were enacted during what United States president's administration to help ease the effects of the Great Depression?
a.) Herbert Hoover
b.) Franklin D. Roosevelt
c.) Calvin Coolidge
d.) William H. Taft
e.) Harry S. Truman
The jury in 1735 trial of john Peter Zenger for the seditious libel of New York's governor
a.) found Zenger guilty of fostering "an ill opinion of the government."
b.) declared that the governor could censor the press
c.) asserted that restrictions on the freedom of the press were unconstitutional
d.) could not reach a verdict and dismissed the charges against Zenger.
e.) acquitted Zenger of libel because his criticism of the governor had been true.
By 1730 blacks were a majority of what mainland English colony's population?
c.) South Carolina
e.) North Carolina
At the beginning of the 18th century, how did the English colonies differ from the Spanish colonies in the Americas?
a.) Spain permitted its colonies a greater degree of self-government.
b.) While private investment was responsible for the development of the Spanish colonies, royal money was primarily responsible for the development of the English colonies.
c.) The compact pattern of Spanish settlements sharply contrasted with the English pattern of far-flung settlements.
d.) Unlike the Spanish, the English allowed settlers from a variety of nationalities and dissenting sects.
e.) The Spanish colonies were more responsive to the new circumstances of the Americas than the English colonies.
The new constitutions adopted by the states during the American Revolution vested power in the
a.) I only
b.) II only
c.) II only
d.) I and II only
e.) II and III only
The Connecticut Compromise settled the Constitutional Convention's dead-lock over
b.) the regulation of foreign trade.
c.) the requirements for voting in nation elections
d.) representation in Congress
e.) the presidential veto
Which of the following authors is NOT correctly paired with a novel or short story that he wrote?
a.) Herman Melville: Moby Dict
b.) James Fenimore Cooper: Conspiracy of Pontiac
c.) Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Scarlet Letter
d.) Washington Irving: "Rip Van Winkle"
e.) Edgar Allen Poe: "The Fall of the House of Usher"
In order to secure the support of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison for the federal assumption of states debts, Alexander Hamilton promised
a.) to resign as Secretary of the Treasury.
b.) to sponsor legislation favoring the expansion of slavery.
c.) to support the locating of a permanent capital for the nation on the Potomac.
d.) to withdraw his proposal for the levying of a protective tariff.
e.) to endorse Jefferson as a presidential candidate.