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obligate intracellular parasites


has to infect host cell to replicate


host specific - infect only one type of animal


consists of nucleic acid, RNA ORRRRR DNA (not both)
surrounded by capsid (protein coat)

may have envelope around capsid

Life cycle of virus

attachment to host cell
release nucleic acid in host cell
replicates (produce viral components)
assemble viral components into virions
release of virions

Bacteriophage / phage

virus that infects bacteria


release of new virus particles from host cells

lysis in broth culture

partial to complete clearing of the suspension due to destruction of bacterial cells

plaque assay

quantity of bacteriophages in a broth

temperate phages

capable of lysogeny


viral genome integrates in host cell's chromosome


viral genome is replicated with host cell chromosome during cell division


no virions produced

viral genome is induced to enter a lytic cycle

conditions: nutritional deprivation, or exposure to UV radiation
direct cell to produce virions

phage lambda

infects Escherichia coli

suspension is incubated

for phage attachment and infection of host cells

soft agar is added. hardens

no phage

lawn of bacteria (cloudy)


clearing in lawn

clearing in lawn

viral plaque caused by the cycle of lysis/reinfection/lysis

concentration of phage

plaque forming units per milliliter (pfu/ml)

phage titer

#plaques x dilution correction

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