The Confederates fired on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina
The Civil War began
Battle of First Manassas (Bull Run) in Virginia; 4878 casualties (soldiers killed)
The Confederacy (under General Beauregard with help from General "Stonewall" Jackso) won a big victory. This gave the South a long-term psychological advantage.
Battles of Fort Henry and Donelson in Tennessee; 4332 casualties
First major victories for the North; all of Kentucky and most of Tennessee were controlled by the Union; General Grant became a hero
Battle of the Ironclads (warships) at Hampton Roads, Virginia; the Confederate ship was the Merrimac and the Union ship was the Monitor
Neither ship won; both sides hurried to build more ironclads (warships)
Battle of Shiloh at Pittsburgh Landing in Tennessee; 23700 casualties
The North won. General Grant was criticized because so many soldiers were killed. The South lost on of its best generals, Albert Sidney Johnston.
Battle of New Orleans; Admiral David Farragut sailed past forts at the mouth of the Mississippi River and captured New Orleans
The Union captured the Lower Mississippi. Important supply lines could not get through to Texas
The Seven Days (the Peninsula Comapaign) for Richmond, Virginia; 36000 casualties
There were more Union soldiers that Congederate soldiers. However, Lee's Confederate soldiers forced McClellan's Union soldiers to retreat to Washington, DC. People said that McClellan was too cautious and fainthearted
The Battle of Second Manassas in Virginia (also known as Second Bull Run); 25251 casualties
Lee and "Stonewall" Jackson won a stunning victory for the South. They drove the Union soldiers out of Virginia. John Pope's army was defeated and went bakck to Washington.
Battle of Antitam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland: 23,000 casualties in the bloodiest day of combat in American history
The Union claimed they had won. Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation.
Lincoln was sure that a Northern victory would end slavery. Both sides were effected.
The Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania; 51,000 casualties.
A Union victory turned back Lee's invasion of the North. General Meade did not stop Lee's army from escaping to Virginia.
The Battle of Vicksburg in Mississippi; 50,000 casualties; 29,000 Confederates surrendered.
This was a great victory for General Grant. It cut the Confederacy in half.
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address dedicated a battlefield cemetery at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
Lincoln's ten sentences told of his vision of "a new birth of freedom"
The Battles for Atlanta; 20,000 casualties
Sherman burned Atlanta. He also prepared to cut a 60-mile wide track of destruction through Georgia.
Lincoln is reelected to a second term. He won more than 55% of the popular vote.
Lincoln's victory was a surprise. This showed that the war should continue. No compromise was offered to the South.
Sherman captured Savannah, Georgia.
This was the end of Serman's March to the Sea. His army now prepared to move up through North and South Carolina and to join General Grant in Virginia.
Jefferson Davis fled Richmond, Virginia. He hoped to escape to the South. Lincoln arrived in Richmond.
The capture of the Confederate capital showed the nation that the war was really over.
1865; April 9
Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia.