Communication Theory Division 3

At a meeting in Jose's fraternity, the committee spends two hours brainstorming possible ideas for service events during the semester. Jose's group is most clearly engaging in which of the requisite functions?
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The student government of State University has heard many general complaints about dining options on campus. To address the problem, the student government convenes several open forums to take a realistic look at current eating conditions. Student government is most clearly engaging in which of the requisite functions?Analysis of the problemHirokawa and Gouran designed the functional perspective to help groups achieve decisions that are:Appropriate and high quality.Gouran claims the four requisite functions of the theory are most effective when groups are addressing:Questions of policy.Of the four functions, identifying alternatives is most important to ensuring a quality decision.FalseStohl and Holmes argue that the functional perspective should also include a requisite function known as the:Historical functionIn a meta-analysis of 60 empirical research studies on the functional perspective, Hirokawa concluded that __________ is the most crucial step in ensuring a quality decision.Evaluation of negative consequences of alternative solutions.Habermas argued that being ethical means being:Accountable.When a group establishes criteria for a solution, they're most probably performing the requisite function of:Goal setting.The functional perspective arises from the socio-psychological and socio-cultural traditions.False - It does have roots in the socio-psychological approach, but not the socio-cultural approach. Instead, it draws on the cybernetic tradition to understand how communication can overcome disruptions.When applying the theory, it is important to have a dose of humility about the wisdom of our own opinions.TrueGroup researcher Ivan Steiner argued that Actual Group Productivity =Potential Productivity - Losses Due to Process.The theory has been criticized because it relies on research that studies the decisions of groups of strangers in a laboratory.TrueIn developing the functional perspective, Hirokawa and Gouran acknowledge their intellectual debt to the six-step process of reflective thinking developed by:John Dewey.Hirokawa and Gouran believe groups are like _________________ systems.biologicalHirokawa and Gouran recommend that low-power group members directly criticize group leaders.FalseThe three types of communication that Hirokawa and Gouran identified in decision-making groups are:Promotive, disruptive, counteractive.The point of Habermas' discourse ethics is to set up a test for whether groups have achieved their goals.False - Habermas was concerned with evaluating the validity of moral claims.Hirokawa studied groups to find ____________ solutions. Gouran wanted to find decisions that are ____________.quality; appropriateIn bona fide groups, members typically know each other beforehand and have relationships with each other outside the group.TrueAlthough groups may address the requisite functions in any order, Hirokawa has observed that effective groups often start with:Analysis of the problem.According to the cultural approach, who determines the nature of the organization's culture?None of the above - all participants in the culture shape and reshape the culture through their actions.A coworker is telling a ________ when she warns that Bill and Janet over in accounting really don't like each other.collegial storyA metaphor clarifies what is unknown by equating it with something more familiar or vivid.TrueMembers of an organization constitute and reveal their culture through cultural performance.TruePacanowsky initially used Geertz's ethnographic approach to understand which organization?W. L. Gore & Associates.Most ethnographers in the cultural approach want to give managers tools to more strongly control their organization's culture.FalseIf students of a prestigious university refer to a nearby "party school" as "the zoo," they are describing that organization by use of a metaphor.TrueWhen cultural approach scholars write about stories, they often use language such as, "This story means..."FalseGriffin, Ledbetter, and Sparks suggest that, in the 1970s and 1980s, Western interest in corporate culture was driven by fascination with the success of which Asian country?JapanWhat is one way that cultural approach scholars have justified the expense of their work, given that they believe that changing corporate culture is impossible?Emphasizing the utility of understanding culture for organizational recruitment.Geertz is most well-known for his interpretive analysis of:A Balinese cockfight.For Pacanowsky, a good synonym for culture is climate.FalseA cultural performance is:An ensemble of texts.According to Pacanowsky, culture is something that every organization has.FalseHow can ethnographers check the validity of their claims?Ask their participants to verify their conclusions.The cultural approach seeks to understand organizations as members experience them.TrueThe website of the Smith Power Tool Company has a page that describes the story of the company's founding. This is an example of a:Corporate story.On the hit NBC comedy Parks and Recreation, Leslie Knope frequently tells stories about the importance of her role in the parks department. This is most clearly an example of a:Personal story.Ethnography often takes a long time.TrueGriffin, Ledbetter, and Sparks speculate that scholarly interest in the cultural approach could be renewed by:A researcher who can write ethnographic interpretation in a compelling manner.Which of the following is an example of a ritual at a college or university? A. The annual commencement ceremony. B. Singing the fight song at each home football game. C. Eating lunch every day at the campus cafeteria. D. All of the above.All of the aboveSarah has been doing an ethnography of a local computer store for the past six months. She's filled ten notebooks with her observations. What must Sarah add to convert this thin description into a thick description?Her own interpretation of the store's practices.The cultural approach belongs most clearly to which traditions of communication theory?Socio-cultural and semiotic.Collegial stories are always negative.FalseEmiko is an organizational communication scholar. She studies corporate use of e-mail by counting how many e-mails each employee sends per day. Why would Pacanowsky think this approach is insufficient?Counting e-mails doesn't give insight to the meaning of e-mails or the act of e-mailing.Geertz uses which term from the world of bugs to describe human cultures?WebsAccording to Pacanowsky, culture is:The puzzle itself.Geertz refers to ethnography as:Thick description.Which research method do cultural approach scholars use when trying to understand an organization's culture?Ethnography.Critical theorists fault the cultural approach because it:Does not pass moral judgment on the practices of organizations.In the information model, communication is:A conduit for the transmission of information about the real world.Deetz believes true participation is only possible when:All stakeholders believe that their communication creates reality rather than merely describing it.In his PARC model, why does Deetz prefer the term "relational" rather than "social"?Because he is just as concerned with the process of communication as its result.Bob is the owner of Bob's Widgets, Inc. He's heard that some employees are upset about the company's policies. To give the employees the feeling that they are being heard, he places a suggestion box in the lobby. Some employees submit suggestions, but Bob doesn't act on them. Which approach to organizational practice does Bob seem to be using?Involvement.Deetz believes that language is important because it creates and sustains social reality.TrueWhen the communication model occurs along with codetermination, consent is the organizational practice that results.FalseDeetz believes that corporations are weaker than the government.FalseDeetz has used insights from his theory to provide safety advice to which group?The International Atomic Energy Agency.Corporate colonization occurs when:Corporations encroach into every area of life outside the workplace.Deetz' critical theory builds on the assumptions of the information model of communication.FalseHappy Burger is trying to decide whether to expand into a new city. Which of the following methods of making the decision most closely matches Deetz's notion of codetermination?The company puts the question to a vote of all employees, with each vote equal in value.Which approach to organizational practice places a premium on allowing decisions to be made by all stakeholders?Participation.Rather than social constructionism, Deetz prefers the term ____________________ constructionism.relationalTo which metatheoretical tradition does Deetz's theory most clearly belong?Critical.In order to promote group identification, Deetz encourages an organization's stakeholders to repress conflict.FalseWhen the communication model occurs along with managerial control, consent is the organizational practice that results.TrueDeetz' critical theory meets the interpretive standard of clarifying values.True__________ is a systematic logic, a set of routine practices, and an ideology that values control over all other concerns.Managerialism.Deetz believes that corporate decisions should be made by:Anyone impacted by corporate policy.Deetz believes that corporate colonization leads to:Decreased quality of life for the average citizen.When codetermination occurs along with an informational model of communication, Deetz refers to the resultant organizational practice as:Involvement.At the heart of Deetz' theory is a focus onControl.In the communication model, communication is:The principal medium through which social reality is created and sustained.According to Deetz, the community that hosts a company is a stakeholder.TrueAlthough strategic control is ____________________, systematically distorted communication is; covertWhen discursive closure happens, conflict:is suppressed, and employees are complicit in that suppression.Deetz' use of the term "stakeholder democracy" refers to:Open negotiations of power among all who are affected by corporate decisions.With consent, workers know they are placing the goals of the company above their own individual goals.FalseDeetz' critical theory draws from both the critical and phenomenological traditions.TrueGriffin, Ledbetter, and Sparks argue that Deetz's advocacy for workplace reform may actually be hindered by what aspect of the theory?His commitment to a constructionist view of communication.According to Aristotle, the "example" is the strongest of the logical proofs.False - He regarded the enthymeme as the strongest of the proofs.Aristotle was a student of:Plato.Aristotle agreed with Plato about the role of public speaking in Athenian life.False - For Aristotle, rhetorical tools were a neutral means to pursue noble or ignoble ends. Plato was more skeptical about the moral worth of rhetorical skill than was Aristotle.Aristotle recommended that speakers need a complicated arrangement in order to effectively persuade an audience.FalseAristotle's "golden mean" ethical approach prizes:Moderation.Communication scholars have devoted substantial scholarly attention to how language generates competence, trustworthiness, and care. This is most closely associated with which of Aristotle's modes of persuasion?Ethos.Griffin, Ledbetter, and Sparks classify The Rhetoric as in the middle of the interpretive/objective continuum.TrueWhich canon of rhetoric refers most directly to how the speaker constructs an argument?Invention.Facts, figures, diagrams. These are most likely to appear in a speech that chiefly uses which of Aristotle's modes of persuasion?Logos.The traveling speech teachers in ancient Greece were known as Sophists.TrueThe three components of ethos are intelligence, character, and ______________.goodwillA university appeals committee overturns a student's parking ticket. They don't reach their decision because of the student's persuasive arguments, but rather because the university's parking guidelines clearly state that the lot in question is open after 5 PM. And the ticket was written at 5:02 PM. The committee made their decision based on which type of proof?Inartistic.Rhetoric is different from dialectic in that rhetoric:Deals with probability.Which canon of rhetoric was later added by Roman writers?MemoryVirtuous character addresses whether the speaker is a good and honest person.TrueWhen Aristotle referred to perceived intelligence, he was referring most clearly to:Overlap between the audience's beliefs and the speaker's ideas.A(n) _____________ is an incomplete version of a formal deductive syllogism.enthymemeInvention refers to nonverbal ways to win over an audience.False - invention refers to the speaker's construction of an argument.Which objective standard does The Rhetoric fail to meet?Relative simplicity.A formal deductive syllogism contains:A major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.Aristotle defined rhetoric as the discovery in each case of all "available means of persuasion."TrueMetaphor is most closely associated with which canon of rhetoric?Style.Aristotle believed that ethics is a matter of conduct rather than character.FalseWhich interpretive standard does The Rhetoric fail to meet?Aesthetic appeal.In her closing argument, the defense attorney argues that the prosecution has not removed reasonable doubt. Aristotle would most likely categorize her appeal as:Forensic.For her retirement dinner, the company holds a 'roast' for Sara, where they all take turns giving short speeches that both poke fun at her quirky personality but also praise her for contributions to the company. Aristotle would most likely categorize these speeches as:Epideictic.In his campaign speech, Senator Sanchez argues that more government money needs to be devoted to maintaining infrastructure. Aristotle would classify his speaking as:Deliberative.Yvette is trying to persuade her sister Dakota. Yvette wants Dakota to let her borrow her favorite dress. Yvette tells a heartrending tale about how she doesn't have a suitable dress, and she'll feel so lonely if she has to miss the school dance. Yvette's argument primarily uses which mode of persuasion?Pathos.For Aristotle, the opposite feeling to fear is:Confidence.Of the three modes of persuasion, Aristotle seemed to be most skeptical of pathos.TrueBurke's "Definition of Man" claims that human beings are goaded by the spirit of ________________.hierarchyIn the language of the theory, the ratio compares and contrasts:Two elements of the dramatistic pentad.If a speaker emphasizes agency, the speaker's philosophical approach is most likely:Pragmatism.Burke's work is a challenging read, in part, because it contains many allusions to:Literary works.Devil-terms and god-terms reveal the speaker's worldview by summarizing what the speaker regards as ultimate evil and ultimate good.TrueIn his apology for not submitting homework on time, Denny emphasizes that the library was closed, his roommates were being distracting, and his boss had demanded he work overtime all last week. Which philosophical approach does Denny's apology seem to reflect?Determinism.For Burke, the basic plot of the human drama is:The pursuit of redemptionPhyllis Japp, writing as a feminist reader of Burke, thinks his theory falters regarding which interpretive standard?Clarification of values.For Burke, words are first and foremost:Action.Burke's most famous rhetorical analysis was of:Hitler's Mein Kampf treatise.Burke recognized that speakers can build identification with audiences by lashing out at what people fear.TrueDramatism meets the interpretive standard of a community of agreement.TrueHow can a rhetorical critic determine the meaning of a speaker's god-term?By inspecting what words cluster around the god-term in the speech.According to Burke, an emphasis on agent shares the language and assumptions of idealism.TrueA scapegoat is someone or something that blamed for guiltAccording to Burke, an emphasis on act shares the language and assumptions of mysticism.FalseThe dramatistic pentad describes:The drama described in the speech.Burke believed that the nature of language leads us to believe that something is wrong with the world.TrueBurke's use of the phrase "rotten with perfection" is an example of:Perspective by incongruity.When Burke wrote of "guilt," he was referring only to the feeling of personal responsibility for doing something wrong.FalseWhich theological term did Burke use to describe what scientists refer to as homophily?Consubstantiality.For Burke, the job of a rhetorical critic is to assess:Motives.Which of the following occurs in the realm of motion? A. Janie gets tired because she hasn't slept in 36 hours. B. Janie drives her car to the store to get milk. C. Janie criticizes her roommate for not cleaning up the apartment. D. All of the above.All of the aboveMayor Smith has been caught embezzling money from the city. In her speech, she accepts responsibility and blames herself for her greed. Mayor Smith is engaging in victimage.False - Mayor Smith is engaging in mortification.Burke used the word substance to refer to whether a speaker used effective delivery in the speech.FalseBurke believed that language was the downfall of humanity because language introduced:The negative.For Burke, life is ________________________.dramaWithout __________________, there is no __________________.identification; persuasionA god-term is a positive word to which all other words are subservient.TrueBurke designed the dramatistic pentad to:Figure out the speaker's motive behind the message.