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Pharmacology for the paramedic

Terms in this set (104)

Class: Sympathomimetic
Action: Endogenous catecholamine that directly stimulates both alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-2
adrenergic receptors. The effects this will have on the heart include increased contractile force,
increased rate, and increased cardiac output. Epinephrine is also a potent vasoconstrictor as
well as a bronchodilator. Other effects include slowing of gastric motility, miosis, and pale skin.
Indications: Anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, asthma, bradycardia (first line in peds), shock not
caused by hypovolemia, severe hypotension accompanied with bradycardia when pacing and
atropine fail.
Contraindications: Hypovolemic shock. Caution should be used in patients with known
cardiovascular disease or pts > 45 y/o
Onset: 1-2 min IV, 5-10 mins SQ
Duration: 5-10 min IM
Adult: Cardiac arrest - 1 mg 1:10,000 IV/IO every 3-5 min with no max.
Anaphylaxis/asthma - 0.3-0.5 mg SQ/IM 1:1,000. If no response, some protocols give
0.3-0.5 mg IV 1:10,000. Post cardiac arrest or for bradycardia with severe hypotension -
2-10 mcg/min IV drip and titrate to effect.
Peds: Cardiac arrest - 0.01 mg/kg 1:10,000 IV/IO max of 1 mg every 3-5 mins.
Anaphylaxis/asthma - 0.01 mg/kg 1:1,000 SQ/IM with a max single dose 0.3 mg.
Side Effects: Tachycardia, hypertension, anxiety, cardiac dysrhythmias, tremors, dyspnea
Note: Always use epinephrine 1:1,000 when given SQ/IM and 1:10,000 when given IV/IO.
Giving concurrently with alkaline solutions such as sodium bicarbonate will cause crystallization
of fluid.