Who were the 2 big influences
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Terms in this set (198)
All western languages filled with words from greek origin
They developed science as we understand
Many forms of architecture were influenced by the greeks
Concept of history was pioneered by the Greeks
Western philosophy
Words from greek origin: Democracy, Monarchy, Aristocracy (membership determined by family) , Oligarchy (membership determined by wealth), Tyranny
What was the Minoans' written language that was never translated called?Linear AWhat were the Minoans' diety?A motheress godWho were the first to have indoor plumbing?MinoansWhat weakend the minoans?Natural disastersAround 1450bc, who invaded crete and destroyed the minoans?MycenaeansVery aggressive & worshipped god of sky, who yielded a lightening bolt?MycenaeansWhat caused the mycenaean downfall?War amongst themselvesMycenaean civilixation disappears into greece in the period known as ___.Greek Dark AgesGreek started cities called ____ .PolisTwo most importaant sections in greek town?Agora & AcropolisAgorapolitical centerAcropoliscultural centerTwo leading cities?Sparta & AthensWhat was sparta's crisis?They were outgrowing their resourcesWho did sparta conquer & force them to do forced labor, calling them helots?MesseniaHelots corresponds to what word?Serf (tied to the land)Sparta became very militarized, an early version of what govt?Toralitarian (govt has total control)What was athens' crisis?They were being ruled by a class of wealthy, land owning aristocrats who were oppressing the peopleIn athens, all power accumulated where?In the aristocratsathenian statesman who drafted athens' first written code of lawDracoAthen's first written code of law was so harsh it was calledDraconian (really oppressive law)What was the characteristics of Athen's first written code of law?-Harsh to lower class -Called for death penalty for a wide variety of crimes including petty theft -Poor ppl who were unable to pay their debts were liable to be enslaved and sold abroad. -Farmers were turned to slavesWhy did athens decide to initate reforms?The leading statesmen of athens saw that if things kept going this way there would be a revoltCame to the english language to mean legislature?SolonWhy did athens pick solon?he was well respected among athenians and known for speaking out against injustice.He helped those who were enslaved or in debt by distributing land to them so that they may start back working and being productiveSolonHe also put a limit on the size of land holding (one person can't hold more than a certain size of land)SolonWhat was solon's greatest reform?he persuaded the athenians to focus on trade instead of continuing to be self sufficient.Athenian statesman who made big reforms to the system of govt in athens, transferring athens into the first democracy in historyCleisthenesWhat is the Ecclesia?the assembly made up of all the athenian citizensWhat did cleisthenes do with the ecclesia?made it into the law making body of athenswho passed the laws in athens?The EcclessiaHow did the ecclessia work?every 10 days the citizens would meet in the ecclesia and vote on whatever issue came up; they determined whether a law was passed or notWhat was the boule?the council of 500What did the boule do?took care of all administrative matters; it would execute the laws, handle public finances, and propose the bills the ecclesia voted on.How were members of the boule chosen?By lot & served for limited timesWho created the system of 10 tribes?CleisthenesWhat was ostracism?athenians had the opportunity each year to vote on the person they considered most dangerous to athens.If someone got a certain number of votes, he would be exiled from athens for _____ years10Athens established the first _______ government.DemocraticAthenian citizens could only be _________.Adult malesThe persian wars were b/w who?Greeks and PersiaWhat are the most famous battles of the ancient world?Persian WarsWhere did the persian wars begin?In the region of Ionia, where several greek cities had been established (ionian greeks) & this area had become part of the Persian empirePersian king decides to do something about athens for medaling w Persian affairsDariusWhat did darius want to do about athens?defeat athens and put a puppet dictator in chargePersians sent over a ____ to invade greece, with a target of athensHorseHow many men were in the persian horse?20,000How many miles away was marathon from athens?22Athenians first defeated the persians in what battle?Battle of marathonIn the battle of marathon, the persians lost ____ soilders and athens lost _____.Persians lost 6400 soilders and athens lost 192 soildersSpartans agreed to help athenians but showed up how many days late?3New Persian king who wanted to invade all of Greece, unlike Darius who only wanted athensXerxesWhat was xerxes' plan?Plan was to invade from north then sweep down and take everythingWhere did the spartans battle the persians under xerxes?Battle at ThermopolayeWhat was the turning point in the war between greek and persia?Battle at Salamis; Persians had larger navy, but athenians defeated the Persian navy- athenians knew the area betterWhy did the Persians withdraw during the battle at Salamis?out of fear of losing navy and resourcesWhen did the persians end their assault on greece?Battle of PlataeaWho's to blame for the greek's destruction?AthensDelian Leaguean alliance b/w athens & other greek cities for a common defense (afraid Persians would come back)_____ begins to accuse athens of being a tyrant city, enslaver of greek libertySpartathe dominant statesman in athens, said they were doing everything for the good of greece in response to sparta's accusationsPericlesDisastrous war that breaks out b/w Sparta & AthensPeloponnesian WarHow long did the Peloponnesian War last?30 yearsIn the peloponnesian war, ____ burned all athens' agriculture and laid seige to the citySparta_____ died from the plague and was probably the only one who could see athens through this war & was succeeded by must less capable leadership.PericlesThe final decisive battle was a naval battle w victory in _____'s termsSpartaAthens had the better navy, but sparta took ____ money to raise a better fleet.PersianWhen did the greek city state fall into decline?After the Peloponnesian war, when sparta tried to implement its harsh system onto greece.Phillip IIEmerged & unified the greeks, yet wasnt even greekWhere did phillip II come from?Macedonia, who were related & similar to the greeks, but they were still very differentHow did greeks consider the Macedonians?uncivilized bc they were rugged mountain ppl who didn't live in cities- they were shepherds & huntersWhat were the Macedonians like?a warrior-ppl, known as very formidable fightersWhat was phillp II's big dream?to consolidate his rule over greece and unify greece & Macedonia- then lead them in a war against PersiaPhillip II defeats the greece force that confronted him & consolidates his ruleBattle of ChaeroneaAfter creating a common army of macedonians & greeks to invade persia, Phillip II is assassinated bya member of his court stabbing himPhllip II's death is believed to be caused by _______.his wife, alexander's momPhillip II's sonAlexander the GreatAristotle, the great greek philosopher was his tutorAlexanderHe shocked his men by announcing he wants to be considered a god, believing he was the son of zeusAlexanderHe kills his best friend In anger then is crushed by guilt after, so turns to drinking heavilyAlexanderIn 323BC, after a night of heavy drinking, Alexander died at age33He encouraged his men to intermarry w the populations they ruledAlexanderWhat was the problem after Alexander's death?He had no son to rule after himAfter the civil war for power after alexander's death, how was the kingdom divided?3 kingdoms were carved out of alexander's empires, each ruled by one of his generals, leading to the Hellenistic Era3 kingdoms in the hellenistic era that were carved out of Alexander's empireAntigonid Dynasty (western kingdom- greece & Macedonia) Seleucid Dynasty (Persia Ptolemalc Dynasty (Egypt)Era characterized by the fact that greeks settled throughout all these parts of the world.Hellenistic eraLingua Francawidely spoken second languagethe greek language that was lingua franca at the time of the hellenistic eraKoineNew testament was originally written InGreekthe major city during the hellenistic era , named after Alexandria of courseCity of AlexandriaCommercial center of the world, with a population of about 1 millionCity of AlexandriaAncient world version of new york city & also the center of scholarshipCity of AlexandriaOne of the great tragedies is that they had this huge library, which contained priceless & ancient manuscripts- It was burned down & Julius ceaser was blamed but it was not him.City of AlexandriaThe word philosophy's original meaning waslove of wisdomFor greeks, philosophy also included ______, the study of the natural worldScienceGreeks looked to explain the world with ______ explanationsnaturalThalesFather of philosophyThales got his title byasking questions & coming up w an answerThales' questionwhat is the substance out of which everything is created?Thales' answerWater- everything is composed of waterWestern philosophy starts hereThales claiming everything is composed of waterDemocrituscame up w the first atomic theory, believing everything was composed of atoms, seeming to be more on the right track than thalesPythagorashad his own following & Ideas, was also a mathematician- He believed everything could be explained mathematically - Everything was composed of numbers - Credit for pythagram theorem, yet Chinese claim they had it firstPythagorasThales, Democritus, and Pythagoras were all known as ________ bc they all came before SocratespresocraticsSocratesUnlike previous philosophers, he conceded himself w ethics; things related to human life... (what is the ultimate good?)Mortar of truthSocratesPurposely chose a life of povertySocratesKnown as the town excentricSocratesDidn't teach anything directly, his method was to ask questions bc he claimed he didn't know anything was just trying to find the truthSocrates using the socratic methodBelieved true happiness came from virtue, not wealth or power, and it was available to anyone & the only sin was ignoranceSocratesHe was accused of blasphemy against the god of Athens bc he questioned them & being Harmful to the youth of Athens bc he made them question their moralsSocratesPlatoOne of socrates' students who founded his own schoolMost associated with the "Ideal Forms"PlatoBelieved a real world exists in this ideal realm like the spiritual realm & everything is impermanentPlatoMeditate to understandPlatoHad a huge influence on christan communityPlatoWrote the book, "The Republic", which questioned the govt & what makes a perfect society/govtPlatoGaurdiansones who make decisions; the rulersWarriorsones who defend the stateWorkersones who grow food & workGuardians were not allowed toown property/ get marriedAristotle believed ideashave no existenceSuggested that if you wanted to know the truth, you needed to study the object of interestAristotleWho were the organizers, builders, and administrators?RomansWhy was Rome a good location for a city?it was close to the sea, with a mountain top location making it easily defendable.2 others residing in italy b4 rome:the greeks in southern Italy & the Etruscans in northern Italy.What were the aspects Romans copied from Greece?- Romans adopted all greek gods and renamed them - Romans also copied greek system of writing - Romans also copied greek philosophyWhy did the romans hate the etruscans?One of the Etruscan kings conquered RomeWhat did the romans copy from the etruscans?- The military system (Roman legions) - Togas - Cruelty - SupersichionsWhat was the first big event?the Italian peninsula, is invaded by the Gauls, who were known for their foriciousnousRomans were defeated by the guals, so they had topay them tribute money to leaveAfter the invasion of the Guals, Romans weren't conquered for another ____ centuries.8Romans justified conquering withhaving a defenseSecond big eventThe building of the roman republic, their form of govtHad such a big influence in later centuries, with old u.s govt being based off of it.Roman republicTwo classes of ppl in rome:Patricians (upper class) Plebeians (commoners)What's the consul position in rome?The executive, who takes care of Rome in times of war & makes sure laws are executedHow many consuls are there at once?2In rome, the assembly is composed of the two houses:- The senate (upper house) appointed for life, coming from patrician class - The Tribal Assembly (lower house) represents all citizens in RomeWhy did the plebians grow frustrated in rome?In the roman republic, they had little to no voice, with the wealthy patricans having all powerTradition of tribunewho would serve as a rep for the people, who was selected by PatriciansHad the authority to announce veto (meaning I forbid in latin) to a law he thought was detrimental to the plebeiansTradition of tribuneTweleve Tables12 bronze tables set out in public that contained the Rome code of lawRoman govt was a __________, a rep system, not a democracy, w a compromise b/w 2 classesRes Publica2 wars that Rome fought against Carthage, a very prosperous city in North AfricaPunic WarsFirst punic wardue to fighting over the island of Sicily; Carthage established a presence in Sicily & Rome felt threatenedWho had the advantage in the first punic war?Carthage had the advantage due to it being a navy warHow did Rome end the first punic war?Rome got better regarding naval tactics and defeated Carthage, bringing an end to the first Punic Wars.How was the 2nd Punic war started?Carthage moves & establishes their presence in Spain, which starts conflict with Rome who has territory in spain_____ was one the greatest generals in the ancient worldHannibalWhat did hannibal do?marched a Carthage army through spain & goal to invade Italy, Roman territoryHow long did hannibal spend in Roman territory?15 yearsHannibal was finally defeated in the ______________, but did a lot of damageBattle of CannaeWhat genral built an army, moved them carthage, & invaded itScipioHannibal fled back to carthage and was defeated again in ______, ending the 2nd punic warThe battle of ZamaWhat was the cause of the 3rd punic war?Roman govt was jealous over Carthage's success in agriculture.How did Rome destroy Carthage?pouring salt on their ground ensuring nothing grows againWhat was the cause of the fall of the Roman Republic?The disappearance of the independent Roman land ownerWho were the backbone of the RR?small, self supporting farmersThese roman farmers would find it increasingly hard to make a living, they had been over burdened by ___________ with farms falling into a state of disuseMilitary serviceRoman farms also got damaged from ______.AnimalsWith all these colonies Rome controlled outside of Italy, they began to create _______ on them.Latifun'diaWhat is a latifundia?a large plantationHow did rome acquire such a large population of unemployment?The roman govt had all this public, conquered territory so they began to distribute it by selling off huge tracks of land to wealthy romans, creating Latifun'dia who then began to use slave labor to produce cheap agriculture goods, that small farmers couldnt compete with.Why was the Gracchus family worried?They were increasingly worried that Rome was being undermined from withinWhat was Tiberius' reform program?The Agrarian BillThe Agrarian BillReform program putting limits on the amount of public land that can be sold to one personTiberius' tactical mistaketribune's only serve one yearWhat did tiberius' enemies accuse him of?trying to make himself a dictator, so a mob of particans of the senate murdered him & 300 of his followers.What was Gaius' reforms?Along with reinstating the Agrarian Bill, he also proposed establishing roman colonies on some of the roman conquered lands so the small farmers could resettle & become productive citizens again.What was one thing that would remain permanent with Gaius?he made an effort to protect the poor of Rome from price increases, which was the best solution Rome came up withWhat was the result for Gaius?the senate declares marshal law against him, declaring him a criminal- executing him & 3000 of his followersWhy wasnt Gaius executed?He committed suicide to avoid itHow was the composition of the Roman army different after the punic wars?Roman generals began recruiting their armies from the unemployed rome & recruiting them for long terms of service like 20 years, creating professional long standing armiesHow did roman generals ensure solider loyalty?the generals would reward them with the generous share of the plunder they would get and land when they retiredMember of the First Triumvirate with Pompey and CrassusJulius CaeserWhat was the first triumvirate?gang of three men who all had big political ambitions, allying with each other to come upServed a term as counsel, then gets permission from the senate to recruit an army & lead it in the conquest of Gaul where he spent 9 yearsJulius CaeserPompeyone of Rome's leading generalsCrassusrichest man in rome who now had political ambitions, but he would get killed in battleGallic Warsa book that was an account of all Julius Caeser's conquest in Gaul, so romans wouldnt forget about himConsidered one of the classics of latin literatureGallic WarsJulius Caesar's reforms- He started public works projects to give romans employment - Established colonies outside of Italy where small farmers could be located - Decreed that 1/3 of all workers on the Latifun'dia had to be free Romans, not just slavesAs a result ________(odds of march) a group of conspirators stabbed Caesar on the floor of the senate.March 15th, 44BCJulius Caesar's murders were allies of who?PompeyWho took rule after Caesar?Octavian