43 terms

Vocab and Composition Words 5

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Clause
A section, phrase, or passage
Clause
In grammar, a group of words that contains a subject and a predicate; a clause can be either independent or dependent; a clause should not to be confused with a phrase, which is any small group of words in a sentence or a clause, without a subject-verb relationship
Clause
An article in a legal document
Ellipsis
A punctuation mark of a series of three dots representing the omission of often extra or non-essential information in text (...)
Inconsequential
Unimportant
Inconsequential
Irrelevant
Quotation marks
The punctuation marks placed around words that are quoted from another individual, either spoken or written, to show verbatim (precise, word-for-word) use ("xxx")
Oxford comma
Using commas in a series of items, the Oxford comma is the last comma in the series, placed before the conjunction (and, or); the comma is also called the "Harvard comma" or "serial comma."
Period
For a direct statement, the punctuation mark used at the end of a complete sentence to mark the end of the sentence (.)
Exclamation
A loud, abrupt outcry or protest that can be made in excitement, anger, or joy
Exclamation
In rhetoric, an exclamatory phrase is a word or group of words with an exclamation point following
Question
Inquiry, query
Semicolon
A punctuation mark that divides a sentence, where two complete sentences that are directly related reside on either side of the mark; the tempo of the mark is that of more pause than a dash, but less pause than a period.
Colon
A punctuation mark that is used to show a forthcoming list or explanatory bit of information that elaborates, summarizes or describes what preceded
Dash
A punctuation mark that throws or thrusts the reader forward
Dash
To strike, smash, or break to pieces [verb], physically or figuratively
Dash
To hurry, rush, or hasten
Em dash
In printing, literally, a dash that is one "em" long
Em dash
A punctuation mark that is like, but longer than, a dash and connects to the letters previous and following, for the purpose of showing a break in thought or tone shift, or to replace colons or parentheses; most keyboards do not have an em dash and, therefore, you must type two dashes (--); in Microsoft Word, you create an em dash by the following: 1) type the original word, 2) without a space afterward, directly type two hyphens, or short dashes, 3) without a space again, type the next word, 4) hit the space bar, and the em dash appears (the two short dashes change into the one longer, connected dash); note: em dashes will appear differently in different fonts (some touch the letters and some almost touch the letters)
En dash
In printing, literally, a dash the length of one "en"
En dash
A punctuation mark that is bigger than a hyphen but shorter than an em dash; there are two uses of the en dash: 1) to show numerical ranges of "up to and including, as in "pages 34—43," and 2) with the compound adjective hyphen, where two words are used in the connection as in "pre—Civil War"
Hyphen
A single-dash punctuation mark used to separate some compound words (-), found on most keyboards; we hyphenate a temporary compound or compound word created for a specific purpose; use a hyphen if the adjective precedes the word modified (Example: The group took a much-needed break.); it is recommended that, if a writer is uncertain as to whether or not to use a hyphen, he or she should always use a dictionary or style guide to confirm the proper usage
Brackets
Also called a "square bracket"; a punctuation mark used to enclose an interpolation, change, or added material that defines or clarifies ([ ])
Brackets
A group or classification
Brackets
A support
Slash
To cut, slit, or make a gash
Slash
To critically attack someone verbally
Slash
A stroke
Slash
A wound
Slash
In punctuation, a stroke between two words indicating that either word may be used—whatever is appropriate (Examples: either/or; man/woman)—or a mark separating
Competing punctuation
The phenomenon of competing punctuation is when, at the end of a sentence or with quotation marks, we do not repeat punctuation or place two punctuation marks together.
Percent
A proportion, or fraction amount, from 100, notated with a punctuation mark (%) that can be used in writing; in formal writing, we spell the percentage out
Gregorian calendar
A solar calendar used throughout the world put in place in 1582 by Pope Gregory VIII that corrected the errors of the Julian calendar, which assumed 365.25 days between vernal equinoxes (about 11 minutes "off"); at the time of the "fix" of the Gregorian calendar, the calendar had shifted approximately 10 days earlier than the actual equinox; the calendar also changed the organization of leap years.
Anno Domini
Also written "AD"; an abbreviation used in writing calendar dates, representing the number of years following the birth of Jesus Christ
Abbreviation
The shortened form of a word or phrase
Before Christ
Also written "BC"; an abbreviation used in writing calendar dates, representing the number of years previous to the birth of Jesus Christ
Interpolation
In writing, inserted text that alters the original text
Interpolation
In mathematics, methods of constructing data points
Interpolation
In science and engineering, curve fitting in data points
Braces
A punctuation mark used to enclose or connect words or lines to be considered together ({ }); used only in text with heavily nested comments, in this order: {[(...)]}
Braces
A pair of game birds
Braces
An orthopedic or dental appliance
Braces
To plant firmly