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Geo 112 Final Exam
Terms in this set (63)
This is the geographical study of cities
1. 54% of world's pop. is urbanized
2. Hallmark of civilization
3. Cities are required for and depend upon growth
4. Cities are centers of rapid innovation and diffusion
Why do we study cities?
What percent urban is the United States?
What is the minimum population for urbanization in the United States?
Jobs, Medical Care, Education, Infrastructure, Culture, Social Advancement
Why do people move to bigger cities and become more urbanized?
These are located on the outskirts of major cities in the less developed world; that are home to new immigrants to the city?
This is when people leave rural areas to live in the squatter settlements just outside of the big cities
Discourage, Ignore, or Help
What is the governments responses to the squatter settlements?
1. Tokyo, Japan (38.1 mill)
2. Delhi-New Delhi, India (26.5 mill)
3. Shanghai, China (24.5 mill)
4. Mumbai, India (21.4 mill)
5. Sao Paulo, Brazil (21.3 mill)
What are the world's largest top 5 cities (in order)?
This is known as a metropolitan area with a population exceeding 10 million?
A city of large size and dominate power within a country?
A continuous extended urban area formed by the growing together of formerly separate major cities along superior transportation lines
A city that is a control center of the global economy
A new urban cluster of economic activity that surrounds a nineteenth-century downtown
The displacement of lower-income residents by higher-income residents as buildings in deteriorated areas of city centers are restored
The local setting of a city
The regional setting of a city
Central Business District (CBD)
The central portion of a city, characterized by high-density land uses
A resource that can be replenished naturally at a rate sufficient to balance its depletion by human use
The tendency for industry to develop in a core-periphery pattern, enriching the industrialized countries of the core and impoverishing the less-industrialized periphery
A center of high-tech manufacturing and information-based industry
The decline of primary and secondary industry, accompanied by a rise in the service sectors of the industrial economy
A society characterized by the dominance of the service sectors of economic activity
The binding together of all the lands and peoples of the world into an integrated system driven by capitalistic free markets, in which cultural diffusion is rapid, independent states are weakened, and cultural homogenization is encouraged
A traditional type of manufacturing before the industrial revolution, practiced on a small scale in individual rural households as a part-time occupation and designed to produce handmade goods for local consumption
A traditional type of manufacturing before the industrial revolution, involving handmade goods of high quality manufactured by highly skilled artisans who resided in towns and cities
Rainfall with much higher acidity than normal, caused by sulfur and nitrogen oxides derived from the burning of fossil fuels being flushed from the atmosphere by precipitation, with lethal effects for many plants and animals
the trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to infrared radiation emitted from the planet's surface
Activists and organizations, including political parties, whose central concern is addressing environmental issues
Responsible travel that does not harm ecosystems or well-being of local people
A snowballing geographical process by which secondary and service industrial activities become clustered in cities and compact industrial regions in order to share infrastructure and markets
This is known as the spatial study of economic activity
Power supplied by machines. Nonrenewable Energy. A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted
1. New forms of energy
2. Centralization of work in factories
3. Manufacturing and mass production
5. Wage labor
What are the 5 important changes that the Industrial Revolution brought?
Primary Economic Activities
These activities involve utilization, gathering, and extracting of resources (Ex: Agriculture, Gathering/Extractive Industries)
Secondary Economic Activities
These activities process, transform, assemble, and otherwise manufacture
Tertiary Economic Activities
This is the service sector of industry and includes transportation, communication, and utilities
Quaternary Economic Activities
These are the producer oriented services (Ex: Advertisement, Marketing)
Quinary Economic Activities
These are the consumer-oriented services
These are valued elements of the natural environment
This is a resource of economic value that cannot be readily replaced by natural means on a level equal to its consumption
Primary activities involving the subsistence or commercial harvesting of renewable natural resources of land or water
Any processes that involve the extraction of raw materials from the earth to be used by consumers.
These minerals are deemed critical to the economic and military well being of a state
Russia, Canada, Unites States, Australia, South Africa
Which countries in the world produce at least 6 or more strategic minerals?
Oil, Natural Gas, and Coal
What are the fossil fuels we use for energy resources?
Northeastern N. America, Northwestern Europe, Western Russia/Ukraine, and East Asia
Where are the 4 manufacturing outputs in the world that count for 75% total of manufacturing outputs?
Mexican government program initiated in the 1960's that allowed foreign-owned companies to establish assembly parts in Mexico to produce for export markets
Labor costs (lower), labor laws (few)
What are the attractions for big companies to join a maquiladoras?
Loss of jobs (US), Overcrowding (Mexico), Crime
What are the drawbacks of a maquiladoras?
Businesses that generate employment in a community or a geographical area.
These arose in societies that fell under the domination of Europe and North America in the early expansion of the capitalist world system.
This describes a stage at which an industry prefers to run in its former location although the main alluring factors are gone
Urban Heat Island
This is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities
This is a Quinary economic activity that estimates $1,220 billion (2016), and is the worlds largest industry that employs 1 in every 15 workers in the world labor force
Attraction, Accommodations (Hotels, Restaurants), Accessibility (Airport, Ship-ports)
What are the 3 A's of tourists potential to find a location?
, Labor Intensive*, Multiplier Effect, Stimulate Local Agriculture
What are the benefits of tourism?
Overcrowding, Corrupt Local Cultures, Crime, Not Stable, Pollution, Resentment
What are the drawbacks of tourism?
A geographical unit based on characteristics and functions of a culture
The spread of elements of culture from the point of origin over an area
The study of the relationship between the physical environment and culture
The relationship of various elements within a culture
The artificial landscape; the visible human imprint on the land
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