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medical-surgical asepsis and infection prevention and control

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Immunocompromised patients
increased risk for bacterial, fungal, parasitic and viral infections from both endogenous and exogenous (like Lizzette)
standard precautions
measures to prevent exposure to blood or body fluids that may spread disease, Combination of universal precautions and body substance isolation (gloves, masks, gowns, etc) techniques that apply to all clients in a hospital, includes dedicated care equipment : stethoscope, thermometer & sphygmomanometer.
aerobic
Bacteria that grows only in the presance of oxygen
Describe the accepted techniques of preparation for disinfection & sterilization
Cleaning: The removal of foreign materials such as soil organic material 4rm objects......Disinfection: Destroys microoorganisms not spored......Sterilization: kills microorganisms and spores.
2 types of sterilization
theres physical- process that uses heat and radiation and than theres Chemicals which uses iodine, alchol and bleach
age-related considertions in preventing the transmission of disease
promote carful oral hygeine and dental care....Teach how to wash hands before food preparations, observe skin for impairment
airborne precautions
illness suspended in air. use with TB, measles, chickenpox, - PPE needed n95 mask, gloves, and gown
medical asespsis
clean technique: techniques that inhibit the growth & spread of pathogenic microorganisms...example hand washing, changing pts beds
surgical asepsis
destruction of organisms before they enter the body.... Sterile object touching sterile object, any object that enters body/penetrates skin (wound, injections, caths, IVs) must be sterile,
what is the infection process
infectious agent, reservoir, exit route, method of transmission, entrance, and host
Infectious agent
bacteria, virus, fungi example bugs, germs
reservoir
where it grows
exit route
to get rid of the infection through , how the microorganisms excape from their original reservoir and moves about, secretions, feces, blood,urine
entrance
how it enters the body...mouth, skin. mucus membane
host
the carrier (another person)
what is the normal defence against infection?
skin, mouth, respitory tracy, urinary tract, GI tract
what is CDC and their recommendations
Centers for disease control and prevention and their recommendation are handwashing, gloves, mask, (eye protection, face shield) and gown
contact precautions
Ilness transmitted by direct contact, example respitory, skin, wound infections, hepatitis A... must wear gloves and a gown
Techniques of infection control
sterilization: method used to kill all microorganisms including spores (physical and chemical)


Disinfection used to destroy microorganisms but does not destroy spores
fomite
non living objects example computers, stethoscopes, scissors, books..anthing the patient touches all day
Vector
any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease
antiseptic
a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
virulent
something that grows fast or rapidly progressive condtion
droplet precautions
protection from diseases transmitted by large droplets; surgical mask worn when within 3 ft of client; proper hand hygiene; gloves, respirator ( strep, pneumonia, influenza) PPE regualar mask, gown, gloves
vehicle
microorganisms are carried about and transported to another host
where should surgical aseptic be used?
operating room. labor and delivery, diagnostic areas, patients bedside such as iv cathrization, surgical incisions, burns
what are the types of precautions
standard, airborne, droplet, contact and immunocmpromised pts