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Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others' opinions illustrate


Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of

positive self-concept

During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that "you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends." Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates

Barnum effect

According to Maslow, the desire for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self refers to the motive for


The social-cognitive perspective highlights what Albert Bandura called

reciprocal determinism

Andrea experiences extreme anxiety when approaching any lake. Her therapist suggests that her fear results from a traumatic boat accident she experienced as a child. The therapist's suggestion reflects a ________ perspective.


A sudden loss of memory is a symptom of


Elaine feels that her life is empty, has lost all interest in her career and hobbies, and wonders if she would be better off dead. She is most likely suffering from

a mood disorder

An overabundance of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine is most likely to be associated with

a manic episode

Which of the following best illustrates a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

social withdrawal

Kyle is extremely manipulative and can look anyone in the eye and lie convincingly. His deceit often endangers the safety and well-being of those around him, but he is indifferent to any suffering they might experience as a result of his actions. His behavior best illustrates

antisocial personality behavior

Brian often interrupts his teacher while she is speaking and frequently forgets to complete his homework assignments. He also has difficulty taking turns in playground games with classmates. Brian most clearly exhibits symptoms of


Although Mark realizes that his behavior is unreasonable, he is so alarmed by high bridges or expressway overpasses that he avoids them by taking an unnecessarily lengthy route to and from work each day. Mark appears to suffer from


Without success, Maxine spends hours each day trying to suppress intrusive thoughts that she might have forgotten to lock her house when she left for work. Her experience is most symptomatic of

obsessive-compulsive disorder

Experiencing physical symptoms, such as blindness or paralysis, for which no physiological basis can be found is indicative of

conversion disorder

Oxygen deprivation at the time of birth is a known risk factor for


Low levels of anxiety are most characteristic of

antisocial personality disorder

Symptoms of schizophrenia begin to appear at a median age of about


A therapist who uses a variety of psychological theories and therapeutic methods is said to be


Which of the following is derived from the psychoanalytic tradition and seeks to help patients gain insight into their relationships, including childhood experiences?

psychodynamic therapy

Systematic desensitization is a form of

exposure therapy

Psychotherapy is likely to be most effective when a client's problem is

a clear cut

Which of the following is LEAST likely to be used for the treatment of depression?


The double-blind technique is most likely to be used in evaluating the effectiveness of

drug therapies

Tardive dyskinesia is associated with the long-term use of certain ________ drugs.


Which of the following individuals is most likely to benefit from lithium?

Miranda, who experiences periods of extreme sadness followed by episodes of optimistic overexcitement

During her weekly therapy sessions, Sabrina will often abruptly shift the focus of her attention and lose her train of thought. A psychoanalyst would suggest that this illustrates


Who emphasized the importance of transference in the therapeutic process?

Sigmund Freud

To help Adam reduce his fear of dogs, a therapist encourages him to physically relax and then simply imagine that he is walking toward a friendly and harmless little dog. The therapist's technique best illustrates

systematic desensitization

The goal of stress inoculation training is to reduce incapacitating anxiety by encouraging people to say positive things to themselves during anxiety-producing situations. This best illustrates a form of

cognitive therapy

Many physicians did not realize that bleeding was an ineffective treatment for typhoid fever until researchers made effective use of

a control group

Which of the following factors is NOT a therapeutically effective component of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing?

rapidly moving one's eyes

Which of the following is a selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor?


If a patient suffers uncontrollable seizures, physicians can destroy specific nerve clusters that cause or transmit the convulsions. This best illustrates a procedure known as


Identifying and eliminating the socially stressful conditions that contribute to psychological disorders is of most central interest to the advocates of

preventive mental health

Marilyn judges her professor's strict class attendance policy to be an indication of his overcontrolling personality rather than a necessity dictated by the limited number of class sessions in a course that meets only once a week. Her judgment best illustrates

the fundamental attribution error

Cognitive dissonance theory is most helpful for understanding the impact of

role-playing on attitude change

In making wedding preparations, Jason conforms to the expectations of his future bride's family simply to win their favor. His behavior illustrates the importance of

normative social influence

Bonnie pedals an exercise bike at her health club much faster when other patrons happen to be working out on nearby equipment. This best illustrates

social facilitation

When visiting the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp shortly after World War II, one German civilian was said to have remarked, "What terrible criminals these prisoners must have been to receive such treatment." This reaction is best explained in terms of

the just-world phenomenon

Max fails to recycle his glass, metal, and plastic garbage because he thinks it's personally inconvenient and likely to have minimal impact on the city's already overflowing landfills. His reaction best illustrates the dynamics of

social traps

The fundamental attribution error involves

underestimating situational constraints on another's behavior

Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite having doubts about her competence.Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student's abilities?

cognitive dissonance theory

In a study of social loafing, blindfolded students were asked to pull on a rope as hard as they could. The students tugged hardest when they thought

three others were pulling with them

Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda's unusual behavior is best understood in terms of


Initiating one or more small conciliatory acts is a central feature of


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