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Ch. 7, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
Terms in this set (102)
Advertising and promotion perform communication tasks by first
Accomplishing lower level objectives such as awareness and knowledge.
After accomplishing lower-level tasks like awareness and knowledge, subsequent tasks in the communication pyramid involve
Moving consumers who are aware of or knowledgeable about the product or service to higher levels in the pyramid.
The initial stages in the communication pyramid
Are easier to accomplish those toward the top.
Trial and Repurchase and the communication pyramid
Toward the top, and harder to achieve
Awareness and Knowledge/comprehension and the communication pyramid
Toward the bottom and easier to achieve.
If awareness levels for a brand and knowledge of its features and benefits are low
The communications objective should be to increase them.
If awareness and knowledge are good, but liking or preference is low, the advertising goal may be
To change the target markets' image of the brand and move consumers through to purchase.
In attempting to translate sales goals into specific communications objectives, promotional plannerss often are not sure
What constitutes adequate levels of awareness, knowledge, liking, preference, or conviction, as there are no formulas to provide this information.
At some point, sales-oriented objectives must be translated into
What the company hopes to communicate and to whom it hopes to communicate.
Communications objectives are teh criteria used in the DAGMAR approach to setting
Advertising goals and objectives.
Communications effects are the logical basis for advertising goals and objectives against which success or failure should be measured.
Under the DAGMAR approach, an advertising goal involves
A communications task that is specific and measurable.
A communications task, as opposed to a marketing task, can be
Performed by and attributed to, advertising rather than to by a combination of several marketing factors.
The communication task is based on a hierarchal model of
Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction, Action
Awareness (communication task, DAGMAR)
Making the consumer aware of the existence of the brand or company.
Comprehension (communication task, DAGMAR)
Developing an understanding of what the product is and what it will do for the consumer.
Conviction (communication task, DAGMAR)
Developing a mental disposition in the consumer to buy the product.
Action (communication task, DAGMAR)
Getting the consumer to purchase the product.
Advertising objectives should be stated in terms of
Concrete and measurable communications tasks, specify a target audience, indicate a benchmark starting point and the degree of change sought, and specify a time period for accomplishing the objectives.
The communications task specified in the objective should be a precise statement of
What appeal or message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience.
Advertisers generally use a copy platform to describe
Their basic message.
The objective or copy platform statement should be specific and clear enough to
Guide the creative specialists who develop the advertising message.
The primary target audience for a company's product or service is described
In the situation analsysis.
The target audience may be based on
Descriptive variables as well a on behavioral variables.
Descriptive Variables for a Target Audience include
Geography, Demographics, and Psychographics
Behavioral Variables for a Target Audience include
Usage rate or benefits sought.
To set objectives, one must know the target audience's present status concerning response hierarchy variables such as
Knowledge, image, attitudes, and intentions, and then the degree to which consumers must be changed by the campaign.
Determining a target market's present position regarding the various response stages requires
Often a marketing research must be conducted to determine prevailing levels
Of the response hierarchy.
In the case of a new product or service, starting conditions are generally at
Or near zero for all the variables so no initial research is needed.
Benchmark Measures give the promotional planner
A basis for determining what communications tasks need to be accomplished and for specifying particular objectives.
Quantitative Benchmarks are valuable in
Establishing communication goals and objectives and are essential for determining whether the campaign was successful.
Objectives provide the standard against which
The success or failure of a campaign is measured.
A final consideration in setting advertising objectives is specifying
The time period in which they must be accomplished.
Appropriate time period can range from
A few days to a year or more.
Most ad campaigns specify time periods from a few months to a year, depending on
The situation facing the advertiser and the type of response being sought.
DAGAR is often used as a basis for
Setting objectives and assessing the effectiveness of their promotional campaigns.
DARMAR focused advertisers' attention on the value of
Using communications-based rather than sales-based objectives to measure advertising effectiveness.
DAGMAR encouraged the measurement of
Stages in the response hierarchy to assess a campaign's impact.
DAGMAR comes from a thesis by
DAGMAR has led to improvements in the advertising and promotional planning process by
Providing a better understanding of the goals and objectives toward which planners' efforts should be directed.
The result of DAGMAR is usually
Less subjectivity and leads to better communication and relationships between client and agency.
Criticisms of DAGMAR
Problems with the Response Hierarchy, Sales Objectives, Practicality and Costs, Inhibition of Creativity
Problems with the Response Hierarchy (Criticisms of DAGMAR)
The fact that consumers do not always go through a sequence of communications effects before making a purchase has been recognized, and alternative response models have been developed.
DAGMAR MOD II recognizes that the appropriate response model depends on
The situation and emphasizes identifying the sequence of decision-making steps that apply in a buying situation.
Sales Objectives (Criticisms of DAGMAR)
The only relevant measure of advertising objectives is sales, and there is little tolerance for ad campaigns that achieve communications objectives but fail to increase sales.
Advertising is seen as effective, to some, only if
It induces consumers to make a purchase.
Practicality and Costs (Criticisms of DAGMAR)
Money must be spent on research to establish quantitative benchmarks and measure changes in the response hierarchy.
The moneys spent to establish quantitative benchmarks and measure changes in the response hierarchy is costly and
Time-consuming and can lead to considerable disagreement over method, criteria, measures, and so forth.
Many argue that DAGMAR is practical only for large companies
With big advertising and research budgets.
Inhibition of Creativity (Criticisms of DAGMAR)
It imposes too much structure on the people responsible for developing the advertising.
Many creative personnel think the DAGMAR approach is too concerned with quantitative assessment of a campaign's impact on
Awareness, brand-name recall, or specific persuasion measures.
The emphasis of DAGMAR, according to many creatives, is on
Passing the numbers test rather than developing a message that is truly creative and contributes to brand equity.
Many advertising agencies do not state appropriate objectives for determining success and thus can't
Demonstrate whether a supposedly successful campaign was really a success.
It is important that advertisers and their agencies pay close attention to the
Objectives they set for their campaigns.
Advertisers and their agencies should strive to set specific and measurable objectives that not only
Guide promotional planning and decision making but also can be used as a standard for evaluating performance.
Many companies fail to set appropriate objectives because top management has
Only an abstract idea of what the firm's IMC program is supposed to be doing.
Poor quality assurance system with inconsistent ad quality may be because of the fact that clients
Don't define the role of advertising in the marketing program and do not precisely specify communications objectives.
Promotional planners should set objectives that are
Specific and measurable and go beyond basic sales goals.
Even if specific communications response elements are not always measured, meeting the other criteria will
Sharpen the focus and improve the quality of the IMC planning process.
Focuses on what the marketer wants to say, when the marketer wants to say it, about the things the marketer believes are important about his or her brand, and in the media forms the marketer wants to use.
Outside-In Planning process for IMC starts with
The customer and builds backward to the brand.
With Outside-In Planning, promotional planners study the
Various media customers and prospects use, when the marketer's messages might be most relevant to customers, and when they are likely to be most receptive to the message.
Zero-Based Communications Planning
Involves determining what tasks need to be done and which marketing communications functions should be used and to what extent.
Zero-Based Communications Planning focuses on the task
To be done and searches for the best ideas and media to accomplish it.
An effective IMC program should lead with the marketing communications function that most effectively addresses the company's main
Problem or opportunity and should use a promotional mix that draws on the strengths of whichever communications functions relate best to the particular situation
Considering decision making as a social consumer decision journey necessitates
The establishment of communications objectives as viewed from a different perspective.
In the Social Consumer Decision Journey the marketer must monitor
That is, know what is being said online about the product or brand to gain insights as to how it is being perceived in the marketplace and then respond accordingly.
The monitor process, according to the Social Consumer Decision Journey must take place
After monitoring in the Social Consumer Decision Journey, the marketer must respond
To specific issues at a personal level.
Responses in the Social Consumer Decision Journey may be
Positive in nature, or be part of crisis management, dealing with negative issues regarding the product or brand.
Amplification in the Social Consumer Decision Journey deals with
Designing the communications program-particularly as it relates to social media-to foster engagement and sharing as well as loyalty.
The objective of amplifying is to
Get consumers more involved in the brand, extending the experience the brand has to offer, and have them communicate their positive experiences to others in the social network.
The final objective in the Social Consumer Decision Journey is to
In the Social Consumer Decision Journey, the lead objective is designed to
Take the consumer to long-term behavioral changes.
At the early stages of the Social Consumer Decision Journey, it may include
Creating more brand awareness.
Later in the process of the Social Consumer Decision Process, lead may be designed to
Promote time-sensitive issues like sales or promotions.
The Social Consumer Decision Journey advocates the solicitation of consumer input upon
Completion of the purchase for the purpose of creating continuous inputs.
The Social Consumer Decision Journey is similar to traditional response hierarchies in that
It envisions going through stages in the purchase decision and marketers need to take specific marketing actions to help consumers along through the process.
The promotional planner should determine what role various sales promotion techniques, publicity and public relations, direct marketing, digital media and personal selling will play in
The overall marketing program and how they will interact with advertising as well as with one another.
When setting objectives for the promotional elements, planners must consider what the firm hopes to
Communicate through the use of this element, among what target audience, and during what time period.
As with advertising, results should be measured and evaluated against
The original objectives, and attempts should be made to isolate the effects of each promotional element.
Whereas establishing objectives is an important part of the planning process, recognizing the
Limitations of the budget is important to.
No organization has an unlimited budget, so objectives
Must be set with the budget in mind.
A new budget is formulated every
Year, each time a new product is introduced, or when either internal or external factors necessitate a change to maintain competitiveness.
The difference between the total revenue generated by a brand and its total variable costs.
Most of the models used to establish advertising budgets can be categorized as taking an
Economic or a sales response perspective.
As advertising/promotional expenditures increase, sales and gross margins also increase to a point, but then they level off.
Profits in marginal analysis are shown to be a result of
The gross margin minus advertising expenditures.
Using the marginal analysis theory to establish its budget, a firm would
Continue to spend advertising/promotional dollars as long as the marginal revenues created by these expenditures exceeded the incremental advertising/promotional costs.
The optimal expenditure level is the point where marginal costs
Equal the marginal revenues they generate.
If the sum of the advertising/promotional expenditures exceeded the revenues they generated, one would conclude
The appropriations were too high and scale down the budget.
If the revenues were higher than the sum of advertising/promotional expenditures
A higher budget might be in order.
Marginal Analysis Weakness
The assumption that sales are a direct result of advertising and promotion and this effect can be measured and advertising and promotion are solely responsible for sales.
The advertiser needs to set communications objectives that contribute
To accomplishing overall marketing objectives but at the same time keep them separate.
Assumption that Sales are a Direct Measure of Advertising and Promotion Efforts (Weakness of Marginal Analysis)
It is often difficult, if not impossible, to demonstrate the effects of advertising and promotion on sales.
Assumption that Sales are determined Solely by Advertising and Promotion (Weakness of Marginal Analysis)
This assumption ignores the remaining elements of the marketing mix which do contribute to a company's success.
To try to show that the size of the budget will directly affect sales of the product is misleading. A more logical approach would be
To examine the impact of various budgets on the attainment of communications objectives.
Sales are not the only goal of the promotional effort. While the bottom line may be to sell the product,
Awareness, interest, attitude change, and other communications are often sought and these objectives may serve as the basis on which the promotional program is developed
Environmental factors may affect the promotional program, leading the marketing manager to assume
The advertising was or was not effective when some other factor may have helped or hindered the accomplishment of the desired objectives.
While the economic approach to the budgeting process known as marginal analysis is a logical one, the difficulties
Associated with determining the effects of the promotional effort on sales and revenues limit its applicability.
Marginal analysis is seldom used
As a basis for budgeting, except for direct-response advertising.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Ch. 7, Pt. 3, Intro to Advertising
Ch. 13/14, Pt. 3/1, Intro to Marketing
Ch 14/7, Pt. 2/1, Intro to Advertising
Ch. 13, Pt. 2, Intro to Advertising
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