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Malthus theorem

Thomas Malthus

population grows geometrically (from 2 to 4 to 8 to 16... ) but the food supply increases only arithmetically (from 1 to 2 to 3 to 4...)

population will outstrip its food supply.


due to maldistribution of food

primarily due to drought and war

three demographic variables

fertility, mortality, and migration

used to compute population growth

basic demographic equation

births minus deaths plus net migration equals growth rate

births - deaths + net migration = growth rate


number of children the average woman bears


most unpredictable, yet potentiall controllable, population factore


death rate


movement of people from one place to another

doesn't change size of population in world, only lower level populations

forecasting population


growth rate is affected by unanticipated variables

ex. economic cycles, wars, and famines to industrialization and government policies


central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs


an urban area consisting of at least 2 metropolises and their many suburbs

models of urban growth

concentric zone, sector, multiple-nuclei, and peripheral

concentric zone

Cities grow and develop outwardly in concentric circles,


City develops not in concentric circles, but in sectors

Each sector characterized by different economic activities


Cities do not have a single center, but have many "minicenters"

five types of people who live in cities

cosmopolites, singles, ethnic villagers, the deprived, and the trapped

3 primary reasons for decline of US cities

suburbinization, disinvestment, deindustrialization


the withdrawal of investments by financial institutions

seals the fate of an urban area


The diminishing proportion of either national production or the labour-force of the richest Western nations engaged in the primary and secondary industrial sectors

rural rebound

people flee cities and suburbs

the population of most U.S. rural counties is growing

3 guiding principles for developing urban social policy

scale, livability, social justice


study of the size, composition, growth, and distribution of human populations

world population growth each day


Anti-Malthusians' demographic transition process

three stages
2.High birth rates, low death rates

east Industrialized Nations of the world are growing _____ times faster than the Most Industrialized Nations


population pyramid

graphic representation of a population, divided into age and sex


(demographic variable)

the number of children women are capable of bearing

- average of women around the world is 20children each


people moving out of a country

"The Great Migration"

African Americans moving from the South to the North after World War II

growth rate

net change in a population after adding births, subtracting deaths, and either adding or subtracting net migration


area in which a large number of people live and do not produce their own food


movement of middle-class people into rundown areas of the city


predict a population shrinkage in the next 20 years

the south (US)

fastest growing region in US

human ecology

(Robert Park)

describes how people adapt to their environment

term for the relationship between people and their environment
(natural resources such as land)


practice of denying loans for housing or businesses in certain run-down urban areas

Neighbourhoods are redlined when they are high risk areas which are undergoing or thought to be undergoing racial change

population pyramid

a graphic representation of a population

divided into age and sex

illustrates sex ratios and dependency ratios

crude death rate

annual number of deaths per 1,000 population

zero population growth

demographic condition

women bear only enough children to reproduce the population

population shrinkage

country's population becomes smaller

birth rate and immigration are too low to replace those who die and emigrate

enterprise zone

use of economic incentives in a designated area with the intention of encourages investment there

invasion succession cycle

process of one group of people displacing a group whose racial-ethnic or social class characteristics differ from their own

demographic transition

three stage historical process of population growth

1. high birth rates - high death rates
2. high birth rate - low death rates
3. low birth rates - low death rates

exponential growth cure

pattern of growth

numbers double during approximately equal intervals, thus accelerating in the latter stages


place people identify with, where they sense that they belong and that others care what happens to them

net migration rate

difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 population

urban renewal

rehabilitation of a rundown area

usually results in the displacement of the poor who are living in that area

edge city

large clustering of service facilities and residential areas near highway intersections

provides a sense of place to people who live, shop, and work there


the displacement of the poor by the relatively affluent, who renovate the former's homes

metropolitan statistical area (MSA)

central city and the urbanized counties adjacent to it

fertility rate

number of children that the average woman bears

Charles Mackey

began field of collective behavior

herd mentatlity

Gustave LeBon

collective mind

Robert Park

circular reaction

collective behavior

extraordinary activities carried out by groups of people

unplanned, spontaneous, unstructured, disorganized actions that often violate norms

early theorists of collective behavior

crowds transform people

Charles Mackay, Gustave LeBon, Robert Park

herd mentality

(Charles Mackay)

describes how people are influence by their peers

5 stages of crowd behavior

Herbert Blumer

1. social unrest
2. an exciting event
3. milling
4. a common object of attention
5. common impulses

Herbert Blumer

acting crowd


people standing or walking around talking

3rd stage of Blumer's acting crowd

Richard Berk

minimax strategy

minimax strategy

people try to minimize their costs and maximize their rewards

regardless of whether they are in crowds

emergent norm theory

(Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian)

analyze how new norms emerge that allow people to do thing in crowds that they otherwise would not do

term for the development of new norms to cope with a new situation, especially among crowds

Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian

emergent norm theory

forms of collective behavior

moral panics
mass hysteria
urban legends


crowd behavior characterized by violence

violent crowd behavior aimed against people and property

general context is more important that the events that precede it


condition of being so fearful that one cannot function normally, and may even flee

moral panics

a fear that grips large numbers of people that some evil group or behavior threatens the well-being of society

followed by intense hostility, sometimes violence, toward those though responsible


unfounded information spread among people


a temporary pattern of behavior that catches people's attention


a pattern of behavior that catches people's attention

lasts longer than a fad

urban legends

don't grow from rumors

a story with an ironic twist that sounds realistic but is false

types of social movements

1. alterative
2. redemptive (expressive)
3. reformative (social reform)
4. transformative (revolutionary)
5. transnational

social movement

consist of large numbers of people who organize to promote or resist social change

target - individuals or society
amount of social change desired - partial or complete

alterative social movement

a social movement that seeks to alter only particular aspects of people

redemptive social movement

a social movement that seeks to change people totally

reformative social movement

social movement that targets society and seeks a partial change

- seeks to change only particular aspects of society

transformative social movement

a social movement that seeks to change society totally

transnational social movement

focuses on large scale issues

takes place across societies

ex. environmental movement - aims to change some conditions throughout the world

3 levels of membership (in social movement)

1. the inner core
2. the committed
3. the less committed

mass media

gatekeepers for social movements

affects public opinion

mass society theory

society movements relieve feelings of isolation created by an impersonal, bureaucratized society

relative deprivation theory

people join movements to address their grievances

agent provocateur

someone who joins a group in order to spy on it and sabotage it

why people join social movements

primary reason - know others in the movement

sense of justice, morality, values, ideological commitment

stages of social movement

initial unrest and agitation

collective mind

(Gustave LeBon)

tendency of people in a crowd to feel, think, and act in extraordinary ways

acting crowd

(Herbert Blumer)

an excited group that collectively moves toward a goal

5 stages of the acting crowd

1. background of tension or unrest
2. exciting event
3. milling
4. common object of attention
5. common impulses

3 factors that cause people to believe rumors

1. deal with a subject that is important to individual
2. replace ambiguity with some for of certainty
3. attributed to a credible source

reactive social movement

social movement that's organized to resist social change

millenarian movement

social movement based on the prophecy of coming social upheaval

William Kornhauser

mass society theory

mass society theory

social movements relieve feelings of isolation created by an impersonal, bureaucratized society

proactive movements

social movements that promote social change

relative deprivation theory

the belief that people join social movements based on their evaluations of what they think they should have compared with what others have

public opinion

how people think about an issue

new social movements

social movements with a new emphasis on the world - instead of on a condition in a specific country

resource mobilization

theory that social movements succeed or fail based on their ability to mobilize resources such as time, money, and people's skills

role extension

the incorporation of additional activities into a role

mass society theory

an explanation for participation in social movements

based on the assumption that such movements offer a sense of belonging to people who have weak social ties

circular reaction

(Robert Park)

term for back-and-forth communication between the members of a crowd whereby a 'collective impulse' is transmitted

4 social revolutions

1. domestication
2. agriculture
3. industrialization
4. information

theories of social change



unilinear theories

assume the same path for everyone

multilinear theories

assume that different paths lead to the same stage of development

cyclical theories

civilizations are viewed as going through a process of birth, maturity, decline, and death

conflict theory of social change

change is inevitable

Ogburn's theory of social change

technology is the basic cause of social change

Ogburn's 3 processes of social change

1. invention
2. discovery
3. diffusion

environmental movement

an attempt to restore a healthy environment for the world's people

environmental sociology

not an attempt to change the environment

a study of the relationship between humans and the environment

Gemeinschaft societies

traditional societies

small and rural

Max Weber

traced capitalism to The Protestant Reformation


a realignment of the world's powers


new way of seeing reality


the combination of existing elements and materials to form new ones

dialectical process

(according to Marx's model of historical change)

each ruling group sows the seeds of its own destruction

sustainable environment

a world system that produces enough goods to meet everyone's needs but doesn't destroy humanity's future

corporate welfare

financial incentives given to corporations to attract their business

greenhouse effect

the build up of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere that inhibits the release of heat


the act of chaining oneself to a tree to prevent its destruction

in production of food and housing, some estimate we destroy ____ species each year


Gesellschaft societies

large, urbanized, fast changing

Lewis Morgan

all societies go through 3 stages

- savagery, barbarism, civilization


the spread of an invention or discovery from one area to another


refers to artificial means of extending human abilities

rain forests

cover 7% of the earth's land area

home to 1/3 - 1/2 of all plant and animal species

modern societies

have lower infant mortality rates and longer life expectancy rates than traditional societies


process by which a Gemeinschaft society is transformed into a Gesellschaft society

global warming

increase in the earth's temperature due to the greenhouse effect

dialectical process

each arrangement, or thesis, contains contradictions, or antitheses, which must be resolved

the new arrangement, or synthesis, contains its own contradictions, and so on

population momentum

caused by the large number of individuals of childbearing age having children

youth dependency ratio

# of children under age 15 compared to the number between 15 and 64

aged dependency ratio

# of those older than 64 compared to those between 15 and 64

percentage of dependent elderly people is growing

sex ratio

refers to the ratio of males to females in the population

wealth flow theory

suggests that 2 strategies are operating in couples' personal decisions about their family size

children to parents = larger families
parents to children = fewer children

conflict theory of population growth

inequitable distribution and control of resources are at the heart of poverty

factors affecting fertility rates

1. economic
2. government influence
3. religious and cultural norms
4. education

life expectancy

average number of years people live in a particular society

reflects overall health conditions

infant mortality

number of deaths within the same year of life divided by the number of live births in the same year times 1,000


largest modern day plague

geographic mobility

changing a residence

push-pull model

explains why people leave areas

some pushed from origianl location by wars, plagues, famine, political or religious conflicts, economic crises, or other factors)

pulled to new location by economic opportunities of political and religious tolerance

2 factors that curb (international) migrations

1. restrictive immigration laws of receiving countries

2. economic recessions

internal migration

high in US compared to most other countries

urban problems

excessive size and overcrowding, shortages of services, education and health care, slums and squatters, traffic congestion, unemployment, and effects of global restructuring, including loss of agricultural land, environmental degradation, and resettlement of immigrants and refugees

60% of the ecological systems that sustain life on Earth are being ___

degraded or used unsustainably

effects of environment degradation

extinction of species, lack of water, water pollution, resource exploitation, collapse of global fisheries, new diseases


salvaging items that can be reused

part of a social reform movement - the environmental movement

See more

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