183 terms


Malthus theorem
Thomas Malthus

population grows geometrically (from 2 to 4 to 8 to 16... ) but the food supply increases only arithmetically (from 1 to 2 to 3 to 4...)

population will outstrip its food supply.
due to maldistribution of food

primarily due to drought and war
three demographic variables
fertility, mortality, and migration

used to compute population growth
basic demographic equation
births minus deaths plus net migration equals growth rate

births - deaths + net migration = growth rate
number of children the average woman bears


most unpredictable, yet potentiall controllable, population factore
death rate
movement of people from one place to another

doesn't change size of population in world, only lower level populations
forecasting population

growth rate is affected by unanticipated variables

ex. economic cycles, wars, and famines to industrialization and government policies
central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs
an urban area consisting of at least 2 metropolises and their many suburbs
models of urban growth
concentric zone, sector, multiple-nuclei, and peripheral
concentric zone
Cities grow and develop outwardly in concentric circles,
City develops not in concentric circles, but in sectors

Each sector characterized by different economic activities
Cities do not have a single center, but have many "minicenters"
five types of people who live in cities
cosmopolites, singles, ethnic villagers, the deprived, and the trapped
3 primary reasons for decline of US cities
suburbinization, disinvestment, deindustrialization
the withdrawal of investments by financial institutions

seals the fate of an urban area
The diminishing proportion of either national production or the labour-force of the richest Western nations engaged in the primary and secondary industrial sectors
rural rebound
people flee cities and suburbs

the population of most U.S. rural counties is growing
3 guiding principles for developing urban social policy
scale, livability, social justice
study of the size, composition, growth, and distribution of human populations
world population growth each day
Anti-Malthusians' demographic transition process
three stages
2.High birth rates, low death rates
east Industrialized Nations of the world are growing _____ times faster than the Most Industrialized Nations
population pyramid
graphic representation of a population, divided into age and sex
(demographic variable)

the number of children women are capable of bearing

- average of women around the world is 20children each
people moving out of a country
"The Great Migration"
African Americans moving from the South to the North after World War II
growth rate
net change in a population after adding births, subtracting deaths, and either adding or subtracting net migration
area in which a large number of people live and do not produce their own food
movement of middle-class people into rundown areas of the city
predict a population shrinkage in the next 20 years
the south (US)
fastest growing region in US
human ecology
(Robert Park)

describes how people adapt to their environment

term for the relationship between people and their environment
(natural resources such as land)
practice of denying loans for housing or businesses in certain run-down urban areas

Neighbourhoods are redlined when they are high risk areas which are undergoing or thought to be undergoing racial change
population pyramid
a graphic representation of a population

divided into age and sex

illustrates sex ratios and dependency ratios
crude death rate
annual number of deaths per 1,000 population
zero population growth
demographic condition

women bear only enough children to reproduce the population
population shrinkage
country's population becomes smaller

birth rate and immigration are too low to replace those who die and emigrate
enterprise zone
use of economic incentives in a designated area with the intention of encourages investment there
invasion succession cycle
process of one group of people displacing a group whose racial-ethnic or social class characteristics differ from their own
demographic transition
three stage historical process of population growth

1. high birth rates - high death rates
2. high birth rate - low death rates
3. low birth rates - low death rates
exponential growth cure
pattern of growth

numbers double during approximately equal intervals, thus accelerating in the latter stages
place people identify with, where they sense that they belong and that others care what happens to them
net migration rate
difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants per 1,000 population
urban renewal
rehabilitation of a rundown area

usually results in the displacement of the poor who are living in that area
edge city
large clustering of service facilities and residential areas near highway intersections

provides a sense of place to people who live, shop, and work there
the displacement of the poor by the relatively affluent, who renovate the former's homes
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
central city and the urbanized counties adjacent to it
fertility rate
number of children that the average woman bears
Charles Mackey
began field of collective behavior

herd mentatlity
Gustave LeBon
collective mind
Robert Park
circular reaction
collective behavior
extraordinary activities carried out by groups of people

unplanned, spontaneous, unstructured, disorganized actions that often violate norms
early theorists of collective behavior
crowds transform people

Charles Mackay, Gustave LeBon, Robert Park
herd mentality
(Charles Mackay)

describes how people are influence by their peers
5 stages of crowd behavior
Herbert Blumer

1. social unrest
2. an exciting event
3. milling
4. a common object of attention
5. common impulses
Herbert Blumer
acting crowd
people standing or walking around talking

3rd stage of Blumer's acting crowd
Richard Berk
minimax strategy
minimax strategy
people try to minimize their costs and maximize their rewards

regardless of whether they are in crowds
emergent norm theory
(Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian)

analyze how new norms emerge that allow people to do thing in crowds that they otherwise would not do

term for the development of new norms to cope with a new situation, especially among crowds
Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian
emergent norm theory
forms of collective behavior
moral panics
mass hysteria
urban legends
crowd behavior characterized by violence

violent crowd behavior aimed against people and property

general context is more important that the events that precede it
condition of being so fearful that one cannot function normally, and may even flee
moral panics
a fear that grips large numbers of people that some evil group or behavior threatens the well-being of society

followed by intense hostility, sometimes violence, toward those though responsible
unfounded information spread among people
a temporary pattern of behavior that catches people's attention
a pattern of behavior that catches people's attention

lasts longer than a fad
urban legends
don't grow from rumors

a story with an ironic twist that sounds realistic but is false
types of social movements
1. alterative
2. redemptive (expressive)
3. reformative (social reform)
4. transformative (revolutionary)
5. transnational
social movement
consist of large numbers of people who organize to promote or resist social change

target - individuals or society
amount of social change desired - partial or complete
alterative social movement
a social movement that seeks to alter only particular aspects of people
redemptive social movement
a social movement that seeks to change people totally
reformative social movement
social movement that targets society and seeks a partial change

- seeks to change only particular aspects of society
transformative social movement
a social movement that seeks to change society totally
transnational social movement
focuses on large scale issues

takes place across societies

ex. environmental movement - aims to change some conditions throughout the world
3 levels of membership (in social movement)
1. the inner core
2. the committed
3. the less committed
mass media
gatekeepers for social movements

affects public opinion
mass society theory
society movements relieve feelings of isolation created by an impersonal, bureaucratized society
relative deprivation theory
people join movements to address their grievances
agent provocateur
someone who joins a group in order to spy on it and sabotage it
why people join social movements
primary reason - know others in the movement

sense of justice, morality, values, ideological commitment
stages of social movement
initial unrest and agitation
collective mind
(Gustave LeBon)

tendency of people in a crowd to feel, think, and act in extraordinary ways
acting crowd
(Herbert Blumer)

an excited group that collectively moves toward a goal
5 stages of the acting crowd
1. background of tension or unrest
2. exciting event
3. milling
4. common object of attention
5. common impulses
3 factors that cause people to believe rumors
1. deal with a subject that is important to individual
2. replace ambiguity with some for of certainty
3. attributed to a credible source
reactive social movement
social movement that's organized to resist social change
millenarian movement
social movement based on the prophecy of coming social upheaval
William Kornhauser
mass society theory
mass society theory
social movements relieve feelings of isolation created by an impersonal, bureaucratized society
proactive movements
social movements that promote social change
relative deprivation theory
the belief that people join social movements based on their evaluations of what they think they should have compared with what others have
public opinion
how people think about an issue
new social movements
social movements with a new emphasis on the world - instead of on a condition in a specific country
resource mobilization
theory that social movements succeed or fail based on their ability to mobilize resources such as time, money, and people's skills
role extension
the incorporation of additional activities into a role
mass society theory
an explanation for participation in social movements

based on the assumption that such movements offer a sense of belonging to people who have weak social ties
circular reaction
(Robert Park)

term for back-and-forth communication between the members of a crowd whereby a 'collective impulse' is transmitted
4 social revolutions
1. domestication
2. agriculture
3. industrialization
4. information
theories of social change

unilinear theories
assume the same path for everyone
multilinear theories
assume that different paths lead to the same stage of development
cyclical theories
civilizations are viewed as going through a process of birth, maturity, decline, and death
conflict theory of social change
change is inevitable
Ogburn's theory of social change
technology is the basic cause of social change
Ogburn's 3 processes of social change
1. invention
2. discovery
3. diffusion
environmental movement
an attempt to restore a healthy environment for the world's people
environmental sociology
not an attempt to change the environment

a study of the relationship between humans and the environment
Gemeinschaft societies
traditional societies

small and rural
Max Weber
traced capitalism to The Protestant Reformation
a realignment of the world's powers
new way of seeing reality
the combination of existing elements and materials to form new ones
dialectical process
(according to Marx's model of historical change)

each ruling group sows the seeds of its own destruction
sustainable environment
a world system that produces enough goods to meet everyone's needs but doesn't destroy humanity's future
corporate welfare
financial incentives given to corporations to attract their business
greenhouse effect
the build up of carbon dioxide in the earth's atmosphere that inhibits the release of heat
the act of chaining oneself to a tree to prevent its destruction
in production of food and housing, some estimate we destroy ____ species each year
Gesellschaft societies
large, urbanized, fast changing
Lewis Morgan
all societies go through 3 stages

- savagery, barbarism, civilization
the spread of an invention or discovery from one area to another
refers to artificial means of extending human abilities
rain forests
cover 7% of the earth's land area

home to 1/3 - 1/2 of all plant and animal species
modern societies
have lower infant mortality rates and longer life expectancy rates than traditional societies
process by which a Gemeinschaft society is transformed into a Gesellschaft society
global warming
increase in the earth's temperature due to the greenhouse effect
dialectical process
each arrangement, or thesis, contains contradictions, or antitheses, which must be resolved

the new arrangement, or synthesis, contains its own contradictions, and so on
population momentum
caused by the large number of individuals of childbearing age having children
youth dependency ratio
# of children under age 15 compared to the number between 15 and 64
aged dependency ratio
# of those older than 64 compared to those between 15 and 64

percentage of dependent elderly people is growing
sex ratio
refers to the ratio of males to females in the population
wealth flow theory
suggests that 2 strategies are operating in couples' personal decisions about their family size

children to parents = larger families
parents to children = fewer children
conflict theory of population growth
inequitable distribution and control of resources are at the heart of poverty
factors affecting fertility rates
1. economic
2. government influence
3. religious and cultural norms
4. education
life expectancy
average number of years people live in a particular society

reflects overall health conditions
infant mortality
number of deaths within the same year of life divided by the number of live births in the same year times 1,000
largest modern day plague
geographic mobility
changing a residence
push-pull model
explains why people leave areas

some pushed from origianl location by wars, plagues, famine, political or religious conflicts, economic crises, or other factors)

pulled to new location by economic opportunities of political and religious tolerance
2 factors that curb (international) migrations
1. restrictive immigration laws of receiving countries

2. economic recessions
internal migration
high in US compared to most other countries
urban problems
excessive size and overcrowding, shortages of services, education and health care, slums and squatters, traffic congestion, unemployment, and effects of global restructuring, including loss of agricultural land, environmental degradation, and resettlement of immigrants and refugees
60% of the ecological systems that sustain life on Earth are being ___
degraded or used unsustainably
effects of environment degradation
extinction of species, lack of water, water pollution, resource exploitation, collapse of global fisheries, new diseases
salvaging items that can be reused

part of a social reform movement - the environmental movement
environmental racism
many recycling plants and trash dumps located in areas where poor people and minorities live

- ethnic minorities are put at risk by the diseases and pollutants that recycling entails
social change
variations or alterations over time in the behavior patterns, culture, ad structure of society

some change controllable, some out of our hands

change is inevitable

can be rapid or gradual and evolutionary
unequal distribution of world resources
high income countries consume ($22,187) 80% of worlds resouces (1billlion people)

middle income consume $4,537 billion (3 billion people)

low income consume $783 billion (2.3 billion people)
average US citizen consumes...
6times more energy than world average

US has 4.6% of world population - 33% of consumed resources
5% of worlds population emits
25% of heat trapping gases
human activity
way we consume and way we live our lives

primary cause for environmental change
force coming from within the organization

ex. conflicting goals and different belief systems within organization
force coming from outside the organization

ex. natural environment, population dynamics, actions of leaders, technologies, etc.
population dynamics
birth/death rates
size of population
age distribution
migration patterns
symbolic interaction theory
(theory of change)

human beings are always trying to make sense of the things they experience, and determine what action is required to take
rationale choice theory
(theory of change)

behaviors are largely driven by individuals seeking rewards and limiting costs
social evolutionary theories
(theory of change)

societies move slowly from simple to more complex forms
functionalist theories
(theory of change)

societies are stable systems held together by shared norms and values of members

change in one part of society affects all other parts
conflict theories
(theory of change)

change and conflict are inevitable

MARX - socioeconomic class conflict is major source of tension leading to change
world systems theory of global change
focus on historical development of the world and how that development influenced current societies

divides world into 3 parts: core, semiperipheral, peripheral
3 parts of world system
1. core
2. semiperipheral
3. peripheral
core countries
economically and politically powerful
semiperipheral countries
trade with both core and peripheral
peripheral countries
provide cheap labor and raw materials
crowd behavior
crowds make individuals see themselves as supporting a just cause

mobs, panics, riots, etc.

(collective behavior)
mass behavior
when individual people communicate or respond to ambiguous or uncertain situations, often based on common information from news or internet

public opinion, rumors, fads, etc.

(collective behavior)
theories of collective behavior
minimax (Berk)

emergent norm (Turner and Killian)

value-added (Smelser)
value-added theory
(of collective behavior)

describes conditions for crowd behavior and social movements
6 factors for crowd behavior
1. structural conduciveness
2. structural strain
3. spread of a generalized belief
4. precipitating factor
5. mobilization for action
6. social controls are week
planning organizational change
closed system models (classical/mechanistic models)

open system models
closed system models
(of planning organizational change)

focus on internal dynamics of the organization

goal of change is to move organization closer to the ideal of efficiency and effectiveness
open system models
(of planning organizational change)

combine internal processes and the external environment
The act of consuming, as by use, decay, or destruction
hyper consumption
consume more than we should, more than we can afford, more than we even want
waste created by the disposal of technological devices
sustainable environment
no harm - maintains
resorative system
gives back to the environment what was taken
5 types of participants in a crowd
1. ego involved (personal stake)
2. concerned (personal interest)
3. insecure (sense of belonging)
4. curious spectator
5. exploiter (don't care - use for own purposes)
3 principles of an urban legend
1. seen as warnings
2. related to social change
3. instill fear