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BLET State Exam Study Cards

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List the primary risk factors that contribute to coronary heart disease and at least three secondary risk factors.
Abnormal Blood Cholesterol
High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
Tobacco smoking
Sedentary lifestyle/physical inactivity
List the secondary risk factors that contribute to coronary heart disease and at least three secondary risk factors.
Family History
Obesity
Diabetes
Stress
Type A personality
Age and Gender
Abnormal resting (EKG)
Cause of Back Pain
Transition from sedentary state to maximum
Exertion without warming up
Physical fitness level
Duty Belt weight and placement of equipment
Incorrect lifting posture
Prevention of Back Pain
Get out of vehicle and move around every 20 to 30 minutes increase blood flow
Try to place equipment towards the front as much as possible to keep it from compressing the spine
Practice good posture and body techniques; bend at the knees not the waist.
Keep physically fit to avoid obesity and to help when it comes to hot pursuits with suspects, subduing.
Cause of Stress
Physical- Long hours, eating and sleeping patterns, encountering resisting suspects, rotating shift work.
Mental- Memory library, being able to listen to radio traffic and respond and report on calls, being able to resolve conflict, being alert during the night
Emotional- Responsibility for others lives, dealing with graphic violence, dealing with victims including children
Social-Dealing with those who despise the police, having to enforce the law with friends and family and Acquaintances
Dehydration Causes and Prevention
Cause:
Excessive water loss = dec. blood plasma
Prevention:
Drink water before, during and after workouts
Work your way up gradually to the temp level
Become more physically fit since fat acts as an Insulator.
Carbohydrates
- providing fuel to power the body
- the body calls on this first for energy, this allows protein to be stored until carbohydrates are completely used.

This is what gives the officer energy
Carbohydrates should consist of 45-65 percent of daily calorie intake
130 grams of carbohydrates are needed daily to support normal brain function
Fats
- Regulate body temp, insulate major organs, reserve energy source, absorbs vitamins, sense of fullness.

This is an energy reserve and helps regulate the body temp.
ats should consist of 20-35 percent

Small amount of fat should be consumed
Protein
- The building materials of the body.

This helps growth and develops muscles.
proteins should consist of 10-35 percent of our daily calorie intake.
should be consumed at 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight.
Warm Ups
are 5-10 minutes of low intensity training to increase blood flow and get the blood into the muscles.
Cool Downs
moves 5-10 min. at a moderate pace, like the warm up. This is for the muscles to contract and return blood flow.
What is Frequency of a workout program?
It is recommended that you maintain 3-5 aerobic workouts a week maintaining exercise intensity for 30-45 minutes.
What is a good duration for an exercise program?
should last about 30-45 minutes and maintaining your Target Heart Rate for at least 30 minutes.
What is a good intensity level for an ideal workout program?
is determined by measuring oxygen consumption and should stay within 85% of their heart rate range.
What is Anaerobic workouts?
short intense exercise
What is Aerobic Exercise?
maintained for an extended period of time and should not consist of starts and stops
Define Ethics
Ethics is the study of morals.
Define Morals
Morality is the measure of conduct.
Define professionalism as it relates to law enforcement
In terms of law enforcement officers, professionalism is the most important moral parameter. If an officer is professional, then the officer is one who lives by the laws he/she enforces.
Describe what factors or influences are present in making law enforcement ethical decisions.
immediate family, entire family, church, neighborhood, school, work environment, and our city or nation.
What are the Cannons of Police Ethics
The Cannons of Police Ethics breaks down the ideas of professionalism, duty, morality, and ethics into article
What is the Code of Ethics
The Law Enforcement Code of Ethics sets forth a list of guidelines a law enforcement officer should strive to live by.
What is the Oath of Office
The Oath of Office is a commitment an officer takes to uphold certain ideas while he/she holds the position of law enforcement officer
What is Constitutional Law?
The Constitution is the basic law of the land. It defines the fundamental principles for governments, including grants and limitations of power.
What is Statutory Law
Written laws enacted by the legislative branches of the state or federal governments are called statutes
What is Common Law
This source of law refers to the rules and principles from judicial decisions in areas of law where the legislatures have no written statues. Common law is frequently referred to as case law.
What are the rights under the First Amendment
The First Amendment establishes rights that we consider basic in a free society. These rights are the freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
What are the consequences of an officer that violates a persons first amendment rights
criminal or civil case brought against the officer, suppression of evidence recovered from the suspect, and department discipline.
What is Territorial Jurisdiction
an officer can either have statewide, local, immediate and continuous pursuit, and investigation of an implied-consent offense (happened in jurisdiction, officer can investigate in or out of state for evidence and can make arrests at any place in the state).
What is subject matter jurisdiction
an officer may be able to arrest for any crimes or have a limited amount of laws they can enforce.
What is reasonable suspicion
Reasonable suspicion can be viewed as whether or not a reasonable person would think something was suspicious.
What is Probable Cause
can be defined as whether at the moment the arrest was made, the facts and circumstances within [the officer's] knowledge and of which [the officer] had reasonably trustworthy information were sufficient to warrant a prudent [person] in believing that the [defendant] had committed or was committing an offense.
How are Foreign Diplomats handled when it comes to arrest?
diplomatic immunity as a principle of international law by which certain foreign government officials are not subject to the jurisdiction of the local courts and authorities.
When can an officer make a warrantless arrest
Any offense committed in the officers presence

Has committed a felony
Has committed a misdemeanor, and :
Will not be apprehended unless immediately arrested or may cause physical injury to himself or others, or damage to property unless immediately arrested

Has committed the misdemeanor offense of concealment of merchandise, domestic criminal trespass, impaired driving, or impaired driving in a commercial vehicle

Has committed the misdemeanor offense of simple assault, simple assault and battery, simple affray, assault inflicting serious injury or using a deadly weapon, assault on a female, or assault by pointing a gun when the offense was committed by a person with whom the alleged victim has a personal relationship as defined in the domestic violence statute

Has committed the misdemeanor offense of violation of a valid domestic violence protective order.
What circumstances can a citizen detain somebody
1) only for crime committed in presence 2) only for felony, breach of peace, crime involving injury to another person or theft of destruction of property 3) may detain only long enough for officer to arrive. A private person may only use the minimum force necessary in light of the offense and circumstances.
What rights are provided private persons who assist officers to effect arrest or prevent escape.
The private person: 1) When requested by an officer has the same authority as that officer 2) Is not required to assist officer 3) Faces no criminal or civil liability for helping officer, and is entitled to worker's compensation coverage if injured.
Explain an officer's role in requesting an issuance of criminal process
Officers usually appear before the magistrate to present under oath the facts which justify the issuance of the warrant or other process. The magistrate has to make an independent judgment to whether or not there is probably cause to issue the warrant the officer is requesting.
What is voluntary contact?
This type of encounter is useful in conducting a non-custodial interview with a person. An officer can simply request to speak with the person. However, the officer should make sure the person knows they are not being detained/arrested and can leave at anytime. Furthermore, the officer should make sure not to limit the movement of the person in any way.
What is an investigative Detention
The officer has detained the person for a short period of time to investigate a possible crime or gather more information to warrant probable cause. The officer must be able to provide reasonable suspicion to detain a person.
What is an Arrest
An arrest is a more intrusive seizure on a citizen's liberty than detention; therefore more proof is required to justify an arrest (probable cause). An arrest is a seizure for the purpose of initiating criminal prosecution in which the person succumbs to the officer's physical restraint or adheres to his lawful commands.
What are the procedures following an arrest?
The officer must present the arrested individual to a magistrate or judicial official without unnecessary delay:
To find probably cause for a warrantless arrest
To set pre-trial release conditions
The officer must allow defendant to communicate with lawyer, family, and friends.
Notify juvenile's parent of guardian.
Notify to the principal of the secondary school at which the arrestee attends (limited to felony arrest - within 5 days).
Seek medical assistance for suspect if necessary and otherwise monitor the physical well-being at all times the suspect in custody.
Consular notification and access for foreign nationals.

If a deaf person is arrested for an alleged violation of a law or local ordinance, the arresting officer shall immediately procure a qualified interpreter from a qualified court for any interrogation, warning, and notification of rights, arraignment, bail hearing, or other preliminary proceeding.
Identify the statutory requirements of an arrest with a warrant.
Valid throughout the state
Issued and signed by a judicial official
Names or describes defendant
States the offense
How long is an arrest warrant valid
180 days. Must be returned if not served by then
When is deadly force authorized
To defend himself or third person from what he reasonably believes to be the use or imminent use of deadly physical force.
To prevent the escape of a suspect from custody who he reasonably believes is attempting to escape by using a deadly weapon.
To effect an arrest or prevent an escape from custody of a person who, by his conduct or any other means, indicates that he presents an imminent threat of death or serious physical injury to others unless apprehended without delay.
To prevent the escape of a person from custody imposed upon him as a result of conviction for a felony.
State the scope of a lawful warrantless search of a vehicle, person or premises
The scope of the search depends on the terms of the consent given to the officers. A person giving consent may also limit that consent in any manner, including limiting the duration, location, and scope of the search. In addition, during a consent search, the person who gave consent may tell the officers to stop at any time. The scope of the search may also depend on the reasonableness of the search (ex. dismantling the vehicle w/o probable cause).
What is a search based on exigent circumstances
Exigent circumstances exist when there is BOTH (a) PROBABLE CAUSE TO SEARCH AND (b) a likelihood that absent immediate action officers could be endangered or evidence could either be destroyed or removed from the jurisdiction.
What is a search based on the plain view doctrine
The officers are lawfully in a position from which they view an object; and
The incriminating character of the object is immediately apparent (i.e., they have probable cause); and
The officers have a lawful right of access to the object.
Explain specific rules involving the search of motor vehicles.
If officers have probable cause to believe there is evidence of crime in the vehicle, the may search anywhere in the vehicle where the evidence could be located, including the truck (must be in public place).

A search warrant (or consent or an emergency) is required before searching a vehicle within the cartilage of the owner's home.

Officers may order the driver and passengers either to remain in or move out of the vehicle with or without suspicion that such persons are a threat.

An arrest of an occupant of a vehicle gives officers the automatic right to search the passenger compartment of the vehicle incident to arrest only if the arrested person is unsecured and within reaching distance of the passenger compartment, or the officer reasonably believes there is evidence in the vehicle relevant to the crime for which the person is being arrested.
During the search of the passenger compartment, officers may discover illegal items which in turn may lead to probable cause to believe that additional evidence may be discovered in the trunk. If so, officers may search the trunk at the scene of the stop without a warrant. This is known as the vehicle exception to the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement.
If, after a lawful stop, officers develop reasonable suspicion to believe that an occupant of the vehicle poses a threat to the safety of the officers, officers may frisk the passenger compartment of the vehicle. Such a frisk may extend to any area or container in the passenger compartment that could contain a weapon. Search of an impounded vehicle must be done in accordance with the impoundment and inventory procedures of the law enforcement agency.
Identify the legal requirements governing preparation of execution of a search warrant authorizing the search of a suspect's premises, vehicle, or person.
Any officer can execute a search warrant.
The warrant must be very descriptive of the premises, persons, or vehicles to be searched and property to be seized so as the officer executing the search warrant does not seize the wrong person or property.
Only judicial officials may issue a search warrant (this applies to there area of jurisdiction).
The probable cause affidavit shall include the officer's background which aid in developing probable cause.
What procedures must be followed when executing a search warrant?
The officer must give appropriate notice of his identity and purpose to the person to be searched, or the person in apparent control of the premises to be searched.

The search must be read to the occupant. If no one is present, the warrant does not have to be read. However, a copy of the warrant must be left in a place easy to find upon return.

Once the search warrant has been executed, it must be returned without unnecessary delay to the clerk of the issuing court with the written inventory of the items seized (or even though nothing was seized).
How long is a search warrant valid for?
48 hours
Who can apply for a search warrant to seize obscene materials
District Attorney
How can law enforcement access a customer's financial records
Customer Authorization
Search Warrant
Pending Litigation
State Grand Jury Subpoena or Court Order
Other Court Order or Subpoena
Who can apply for a nontestimonial identification order?
District Attorney
When are Miranda Warnings Required?
when the person is in custody and under interrogation. A suspect is in "custody" for Miranda purposes when he has been formally arrested or when his freedom of movement has been restrained to the extent associated with a formal arrest (when a reasonable person would believe he was under arrest).
What are the adult miranda warnings?
You have the right to remain silent.
- What you say can be and may be used against you in a court of law
- You have the right to talk to a lawyer and to have a lawyer present while you are being questioned.
- If you want a lawyer before or during questioning but cannot afford to hire a lawyer, one will be appointed to represent you at no cost before any questioning.
What are the juvenile miranda warnings
You have the right to remain silent.
- Anything you say can be and may be used against you.
- You have the right to have a parent, guardian, or custodian present during questioning.
- You have the right to talk to a lawyer for advice before any questioning and have that lawyer with you during any questioning. If you are not represented by a lawyer, one will be appointed to you before any questioning if you wish.
What are the exceptions to providing the miranda warnings
Routine booking questions (except DOB in some rape cases).
Public safety exception
Spontaneous, volunteered statements that are not the result of custodial interrogation
Custodial or noncustodial questioning by non-law enforcement persons who are not acting as agents of the police.
What are the procedures for non-custodial interview techniques to obtain lawful confessions.
nform the suspect that she is not under arrest
Do not surround the suspect with officers
Do not display weapons during the questioning
Inform the suspect that she is free to discontinue the interview and leave at any time
Allow the suspect to make phone calls, have a cigarette, and have food and beverage, if applicable, offer her a ride home; do not over-supervise the defendant
Interview the suspect in an environment familiar to her; do not use an interrogation room setting
Allow the suspect to have family members or friends present during questioning
If "noncustody" is challenged at a suppression hearing, the officers should encourage the district attorney to insist on detailed "finding of facts"
Consider interviewing the person at a neutral place (ex. coffee shop).
When does ones 6th amendments rights attach?
The 6th Amendment attaches a critical stage of the prosecution (first appearance before a magistrate, indictment, District Court).
When are 5th amendments right required
Arrest or Custodial Interrogation
What are the statutory requirements of conducting a photographic lineup.
The perpetrator may or may not be in the lineup
The lineup administrator does not know the suspect's identity
The eyewitness should not feel compelled to make an identification
It is as important to exclude innocent persons as it is to identify the perpetrator
The investigation will continue whether or not the identification is made.
The eyewitness shall acknowledge the receipt of instructions in writing (or admin note refusal and then sign).
In a photo line-up, the photograph of the suspect shall be contemporary and, to the extent practicable, shall resemble the suspect's appearance at the time of the offense.
How should the lineup be compiled?
All fillers selected shall resemble, as much as practicable, the eyewitness's description of the perpetrator in significant features, including any unique or unusual features.
At least five fillers shall be included in a photo lineup, in addition to the suspect
If the eyewitness has previously seen any lineup in connection with the identification of another person suspect of involvement in the offense, the fillers in the lineup shall be different from the fillers used in any prior lineups.
If there are multiple eyewitnesses, the suspect shall be placed in a different position in lineups for each witness.
In a lineup, no writings of information concerning any previous arrest, indictment, or conviction shall be visible or made know to the eyewitness.
Only one suspect shall be included in a lineup
Nothing shall be said to the eyewitness regarding the suspect's position in the lineup of regarding anything that might influence the eyewitness's identification
The lineup administrator shall seek and document a clear statement from the eyewitness, at the time of the identification and in the eyewitness's own words, as to the eyewitness's confidence level that the person identified in a given lineup is the perpetrator. Witnesses are to be separate during this procedure or instruction.
What's the difference between a civil dispute and a criminal offense?
Criminal offenses consist of certain factual components referred to as "element."
Civil matters is a private dispute between 2 partys which may or may not involve a crime.
Define Statue of Limitations
if a charge for a criminal offense is not brought against a defendant within a specified time it may not be prosecuted. 2years on misdemeanors and no statue of limitations on felonies.
Elements of RDO?
Willfully
Resist or delays or obstructs
A person the defendant knows to be a public officer
while that officer is discharging or attempting to discharge a duty of his or her office.
Elements of Larceny
Takes personal property in the possession of another
and carries it away
without the consent of the possessor
and with the intent to deprive the possessor of its use permanently
knowing that the taker was not entitled to it
Elements of 1st Degree Tresspass
without authorization
enter or remains
on premises of another so enclosed or secured as to demonstrate an intent to keep out intruders, or in a building of another.
Elements of 2nd Degree Trespass
without authorization
enters or remains
on premises of another
afte having been notified not to enter or remain there by the owner, a person in charge of the premises, a lawful occupant, or another authorized person, or when the premises are posted, in a manner reasonably likely to come to the attention of intruders.with notice not to enter.
Elements of Domestic Criminal Trespass
after having been forbidden to enter or after having been ordered to leave
by the law occupant
enters or refuses to leave
the premises occupied by the charged persons present or former spouse
Elements of Simple Assault
Commits an assault on another.
Elements o Simple Affray
a public place
to the terror of the public.
Elements of Aggravated misdemeanor Affray
engages in fighting
in a public place
to the terror of the public and inflicts serious injury or uses a deadly weapon or a male at least 18 years old assaults a female, or assaults a child
Elements of Drunk and Destructive
is drunk
in a public place
and is disruptive by interfering with traffic, with passage across a sidewalk or entrance to any building, or grabbing, shoving, or pushing others, or fighting or challenging others to fight or cursing.
Elements of Carrying a Concealed Weapon
Willfully and intentionally carries
concealed about his or her person
and weapon other than pocket knife
while of his or her own premises or if the deadly weapon is a handgun,needs concealed permit
Elements of Communicating Threats
Without lawful authority threatens to injure another person, or damages another's property
communicates threats to threatened person
in a manner to make a reasonable person believe it likely to be carried out, and
the threat is believed by the threatened person.
Elements of Injury to Property
willfully and wantonly
damages injures, or destroys
the real/personal property of another.
What is an Alcoholic Beverage?
Any beverage containing at least one-half of one percent alcohol by volume including malt beverages, unfortified
What is nontaxpaid alcohol?
Any alcoholic beverage which the taxes imposed by the United States in which alcoholic beverage was purchased and have not been paid.
What is a Malt Beverage?
Any brewed or fermented beverage containing at least one half of one percent, and not more than 15% alcohol by volume, Any Malt beverage containing more than 6% alcohol by volume shall bear a label clearly indicating the alcohol content of the malt beverage.
What is unfortified wine?
Any wine that of 16% or less alcohol by volume made by fermentation from pure grapes, fruits, berries, rice, or honey
What is fortified wine?
Any wine that of 16% or more alcohol by volume but no more than 24% alcohol by volume
What is spirituous liquor?
distilled spirits or ethyl alcohol including spirits of wine, whiskey, rum, brandy, gin, and all other distilled spirits and mixtures of cordials liquor and premixed cocktails in closed containers for beverage use regardless of their dilution.
What is a mixed beverage?
a drink composed in whole or in part of spirituous liquor and served in a quantity less than the quantity contained in a closed package.
What are premises?
all areas whether inside or outside the licensed premises where the permittee has control of the property to a lease deed or other legal process.
What is a sale?
any transfer, trade, exchange, or barter in any manner or by any means for consideration.
How old do you have to be to possess an alcoholic beverage?
21
What are purchasing limits for beer?
A person can purchase any amount of beer in kegs after obtaining a purchase transportation permit and no more than 80 liters in cans or bottles in one transaction.
Purchasing limit for unfortified wine?
A person can purchase no more than 50 liters of unfortified wine in one transaction.
Purchasing limit for fortified wine?
A person may purchase no more than 8 liters of fortified wine or spirits with liquor or combination of the two in one transaction.
Who issues purchasing transport permits?
Local ABC Board
Purchasing transport permits allow how much to be transported?
The permit would allow up to 100 liters of unfortified wine, and a maximum of 40 liters of either fortified wine or spirits, or 40 liters of the combined.
What is law about open containers?
No person can drive a motor vehicle with an open container of alcohol in their vehicle.

Nobody can consume an alcoholic beverage while driving a vehicle or drive a vehicle while alcohol remains in the body.

It is also unlawful for any passenger to consume an alcohol beverage while the vehicle is being operated on a highway or highway right of way.
What cases does the juvenile court have jurisdiction over?
where a juvenile is alleged to be neglected, abused, dependent. It also has jurisdiction over all emancipation and foster care cases. Lastly it has jurisdiction over cases where juveniles are alleged to be delinquent.
Who must be read juvenile Miranda warnings?
Any juvenile ages 14-17, not emancipated, or a member of armed forces
What age group must have a parent or attorney present while questioning?
less than 14
What is contributing to the delinquency of a minor?
anyone who is at least 16 and helps or aids a minor in any way complete a crime that would find the juvenile delinquent, abused or neglected.
When can a juvenile delinquent be taken into temporary custody?
if there is probable cause that they would have been arrested if they were an adult under identical circumstances.
When can an officer take a undisciplined juvenile into custody?
if there is reasonable grounds to believe that the juvenile is undisciplined such as being truant.
What does the Interstate Compact state?
Any juvenile believed to be a runaway from another state can be held for up to 30 days. If any crimes were committed in the officers jurisdiction than the juvenile must be prosecuted before being returned to his/her home state
What Must a Petition contain?
name, date of birth, address of juvenile, and address of the juveniles parents. The facts should invoke jurisdiction, and there should be a statement that supports every element of the accusation.
Who screens and evaluates the complaint alleging that a juvenile is delinquent or undisciplined?
Intake counselor
What steps should be taken when dealing with an abused, neglected child?
Provide necessary medical assistance, Notify the Department of Social Services, notify juvenile investigator if applicable, take child into custody if warranted, conduct interviews and answer complaints.
What kind of setting should be provided for parent/juvenile conferences?
A controlled atmosphere. A place that is more secure and less dangerous than home. It also shall provide limited distractions.
What is the criteria for nonsecure custody of a juvenile?
a reasonable factual basis that the juvenile is a runaway and consents to nonsecure custody or the juvenile meets one or more of the criteria for secure custody, but the court finds it best for the juvenile to be I nonsecure placement.
What is the criteria for secure custody of a juvenile?
is charged with a felony and is a danger to property or persons.

Is charged with a misdemeanor which includes at least one element of which is assault on a person, or threatened to use a weapon, or driving while impaired.

The juvenile failed to appear in court or there is reason the juvenile will not appear in court on a delinquency charge.

The juvenile is an absconder.

Reason to believe the juvenile should be detained for their on protection.

The juvenile is a runaway and refuses nonsecure custody.
What is Crime Prevention
Crime Prevention is the Anticipation, Recognition, and Appraisal of a crime risk, and the initiation of some action to remove or reduce it.
List examples of community policing in NC
bike patrols,
strategic foot patrols,
permanent assignments to target areas,
community watch,
neighborhood meetings with L.E.
Civil Remedies such as enforcing public nuisance law
Crime Prevention is the?
Anticipation, Recognition, and Appraisal of a crime risk
What are the crime prevention categories?
Punitive - The Threat of Punishment

Corrective - Working with individual or social conditions so no repeat crimes

Mechanical - Putting obstacles in front of would be offenders

Casual - Removes causes of crimes
Whats purpose of security survey
To recognize and appraise specific risks which are present.