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New Freedom

Wilson's policy that favored the small business, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and unmonopolized markets.

New Nationalism

Progressive policy of Theodore Roosevelt--1912 Progressive party platform--favored a more active government role in economic and social affairs--favored continued consolidation of trusts and labor unions and the growth of powerful regulatory agencies in Washington--favored women's suffrage and social welfare programs (including minimum-wage laws and "socialistic" social insurance).

Triple Wall of Privilege

the tariff, the banks, and the trusts

Underwood Tariff

substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment

Louis Brandeis

A prominent reformer and Attorney in "Muller vs. Oregon" (1908) that persuaded Supreme Court to accept constitutionality of laws protecting women workers saying conditions are harder on women's weaker bodies. Wrote book "Other People's Money and How Bankers use it" (1914) that pushed reform within the banks. Nominated in 1916 by Woodrow Wilson for Supreme Court.

Federal Reserve Act

The most important piece of economic legislation between the Civil War and the New Deal. It created a regulatory agency for banking with 12 regional reserve districts. Each bank was independent but was controlled by the Federal Reserve Board, which was controlled by the public. It controls the amount of money in circulation through reserves and interest rates.

Clayton Anti-Trust Act

This helped to control monopolies by lengthening the Sherman Act's list of business practices that were objectionable (interlocking directorates). It exempted labor and agricultural organizations from antitrust prosecution; legalized strikes and peaceful picketing.

Victoriano Huerta

a Mexican military officer and president of Mexico during the Mexican revolution. He is still vilified by modern-day Mexicans, who generally refer to him as El Chacal — "The Jackal".

Venustiano Carranza

He became president of Mexico in 1914. He succeeded the harsh President Huerta. He at first supported Wilson's sending General Pershing into Mexico to look for the criminal Pancho Villa, but when he saw the number of troops he became outraged and opposed Wilson.

Pancho Villa

a combination of a bandit and a Robin Hood. He was a rival of President Carranza of Mexico. He alluded Pershing and was never caught because Pershing was forced to go fight in WWI.

Tampico Incident

In April 1914, the Mexican situation became more muddled by an American overreaction to a minor incident in a Gulf coastal town. Seven uniformed U.S. sailors were arrested for straying into an off-limits area and were paraded through hostile crowds in the town. When the matter was brought to the attention of a higher Mexican official, the sailors were quickly released and an informal apology issued.

John Pershing

an American general who led troops against "Pancho" Villa in 1916. He took on the Meuse-Argonne offensive in 1918 which was one of the longest lasting battles- 47 days in World War I. He was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.

Francis Ferdinand

- an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungary's declaration of war against Serbia. This caused Germany and Austria-Hungary, and countries allied with Serbia (the Triple Alliance Powers) to declare war on each other, starting World War I.

Central Powers

During WWI, the powers opposing the Allies. These countries included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey

Allied Powers

Composed of France, Britain, and Russia, and later Japan and Italy, the Allies fought the Central Powers in World War I. The United States joined the Allies in 1917, and after major economic and military blows, World War I ended with the Treaty of Versailles

Kaiswer Wilhelm II

Ruler of Germany; congratulated the Boers of South Africa for capturing a British raiding party; this turned British anger toward Germany and prevented a war between the US and Britain over the Venezuelan Crisis


a British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat on May 7, 1915. 128 Americans died. The unrestricted submarine warfare caused the U.S. to enter World War I against the Germans.

Sussex Pledge

Germany agreed not to sink unarmed passenger ships with out warning. They violated this in 1916 when they torpedoed this French passenger ship. Wilson threatened to break diplomatic relations because of this.

Charles Evans Hughes

He was a Republican governor of New York who was a reformer. He was later a supreme court justice who ran for President against Woodrow Wilson in 1916. The Democrats said that if he won then the country would end up going to war. He lost a very close race for the position to Wilson.

"He kept us out of war"

Wilson's slogan for his 1916 campaign, a hollow promise to keep out of war

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