Upgrade to remove ads
Revolution and a New Nation
Terms in this set (44)
-A new school of thought in which reason, math, science took over philosophical thought.
-Ideals such as liberty, progress, toleration, separation of church and state.
What was the Enlightenment?
It contributed to the ideas of the revolution (freedom of speech, equality, religious tolerance, etc).
How did the Enlightenment contribute to the revolution?
Some laws and regulations were imposed and not well enforced, and the colonies were left to fend for themselves.
British treatment of the colonies prior to the 1760s?
They began enforcing the heavy taxation and laws
How did British treatment of the colonies change after the 1760s?
The British were in huge amounts of debt from fighting the French and Indian war, so they started enforcing taxes and laws they previously didn't.
Why did British treatment of the colonies change?
Exporting more than you import.
What is mercantilism?
-encourage domestic production
-build and protect shipping industry
-colonies supplies raw materials and markets
What methods were employed to carry out mercantilism?
-all goods coming from colonies had to be on British ships
-all colonial ships had to be unloaded in England for taxation
-banned factories in the colonies
-heavy taxation on sugar and molasses (Molasses Act)
What legislation was put in place to aid the mercantile system?
A mutual defense pact proposed in 1754 by Benjamin Franklin that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes.
-It was turned down by the crown and the colonies
What was the Albany plan?
-parliament increased colonial taxes
-Britain's insistence that colonies defend themselves
Why did the colonists feel more united and independent?
-ways to fight
What divided the colonists?
-Taxation without representation
What were some issues the colonists had with the crown?
Members of Parliament represent everyone, but there is no representative for the people directly.
What is the idea of "virtual representation?"
A small group of educated elites who protested taxes, spread anti-British propaganda, and organized boycotts of British goods.
-They were led by Samuel Adams.
Who were the Sons of Liberty?
After Lexington and Concord
When was the second Continental congress called?
Organized continental army, called on colonies to send troops, appointed committee to draft Declaration of Independence
-Olive Branch Petition
-George Washington was appointed Commander in Chief of the army
What was the purpose of the Continental Congress?
A peace petition that was rejected by the King
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
They supported the war, independence/new nation and hated Britain.
How did the Patriots/rebels feel about the war?
They supported Britain, didn't support the war and thought the colonitsts were traitors.
How did the Loyalists feel about the war?
These were poorer people who didn't have enough education to choose a side, cared more about personal matters.
How did undecided people feel about the war?
-world's best navy
-supplies provided by British factories
-well-trained/skilled officers and engineers
-access to mercenaries (Hessians)
What were some military advantages of the British?
-home field advantage
-accurate rifled weapons
What were some military advantages towards the Continentals?
Strategy: make it as long as possible and don't die
Tactics: surprise attacks, guerilla warfare
American Strategy and Tactics?
Strategy: large, set-piece battles, engage always
Tactics: lining up in a big line
English strategy and tactics?
-can fight all year round
-not much success up north
-higher population of loyalists in the south
Why did the English want to take the war down south?
They defeated the patriots in many small battles, and it seems as if the British will win, but the southern campaign is exhausting.
How were the English successful down south?
They had allies who helped the by providing aid in the form of supplies, weapons, military leaders and soldiers. The allies played a major role in helping the colonists gain their independence.
What was the importance of European allies?
Loose union between states, and power was mostly between states rather than a centralized government.
What were the Articles of Confederation characterized as?
-no executive branch (couldn't enforce laws)
-no judiciary (couldn't settle disputes)
-couldn't regulate trade
-making laws was difficult (9/13)
-changing government was really difficult (13/13)
Major weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
Some guys in MA were hit really hard by taxes, and they were heavily in debt, so they got mad and fought.
What was Shay's Rebellion?
To amend the Articles of Confederation and decide how the US was going to be governed, and the long-term goal was to create a new type of government (representative democracy).
What was the goal of the Constitutional convention?
-James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population.
-Smaller states hated this because they had less people and less power.
-NJ Plan was exactly the same, save for there being a committee Executive branch. --They both had 3 branches of government and legislature.
What was the Virginia Plan?
-State vs. Federal powers
-Commerce (nationalized economy and establishing free flow of commerce)
What were some issues to be resolved at the Convention?
Stronger national government with more control over the states
Federalist view on central government?
Modern, industrial, urban
Federalist vision for America?
Favored state power and didn't like executive power
Anti-federalist view on central government?
Traditional, agricultural, rural
Anti-federalist vision for America?
He was overwhelmingly elected and he created a cabinet to help him run the country because there were a lot of issues.
He was a delegator.
1. Pay back bonds in full to establish credit
2. Interstate trade policies to favor commerce over agriculture
3. Create a national bank
4. First federal tax
What was Hamilton's economic policy?
Who was Washington's successor?
-Foreign conflicts and party politics
-John Adams did not listen
What did GW warn John Adams to be aware of and did Adams listen?
He was overconfident, impulsive, wouldn't seek counsel, and couldn't take criticism
-He was authoritarian
What was Adams' leadership style like?
Acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government.
What were the Alien and Sedition acts?
He was authoritarian and didn't like people talking bad about him in fear of being criticized.
What is a summary of John Adam's presidency?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
History Colonies Test
USH Chapter 1 Test: Colonies
Expansion and Prelude to War Test
Gilded Age and Progressive Era USH Test
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Constitution Convention Era
APUSH 1 Midterm
Social Studies Midterm 2018
Saraland Government Ch 2
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Anat/Phys Second Semester Final
American Imperialism and WWI USH Test
Nervous System/Senses Anatomy Test
Endocrine Glands and Hormones
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
AP Biology Unit 2 Test
BEC B3, Module 2
Western Civ. 2 (Midterm) (1st material)