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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Period 3 (1754-1800)
Terms in this set (67)
Protestant Scottish settlers who migrated from British-controlled northern Ireland to the American
colonies in the 1700s.
The Enlightenment (Age of Reason)
17th century philosophical movement in Europe that emphasized reason and individualism rather
than tradition and faith.
French and Indian War, 1754-1763 (aka The Seven Years' War, 1756-1763)
Imperial war between Britain and France for control of North America (beginning in 1754) that
became a larger-scale European war in 1756. American Indians generally supported the French
British defeat of the French, 1763
Under the Treaty of Paris, which ended the French and Indian War, Britain gained possession of
all of French Canada and Spanish Florida.
Pontiac's Rebellion, 1763
Unsuccessful Indian rebellion led by an Ottawa chief named Pontiac against British Indian policy
in the Northwest Territory.
Proclamation Line of 1763
Britain established a boundary in the Appalachian Mountains, banning colonists from settling west
of the boundary. Designed to prevent conflict with Indians.
The Paxton Boys, 1764
Frontiersman of Scots-Irish origin in Paxton, Pennsylvania , who massacred Conestoga Indians
and then marched on Philadelphia demanding the colonial government provide better defense
against Indians. The government responded with an official bounty for Indian scalps.
Sugar Act, 1764
British law that taxed sugar and other colonial imports to pay for some of Britain's expenses in
protecting the colonies during the French and Indian War.
Stamp Act, 1765
British law that established a direct tax in the colonies on written documents, including
newspapers, legal documents, and playing cards. The tax was designed to raise revenue for the
British empire. Protests against the Stamp Act led to its repeal in 1766.
Sons of Liberty
Secret organization formed in Boston in 1765 to oppose the Stamp Act. Best known for the
Boston Tea Party in 1773.
Declaratory Act, 1766
The British Parliament asserted they had "the sole and exclusive right" to tax the colonists,
rejecting the colonial argument that taxation should rest in the hands of colonial assemblies.
Townshend Acts, 1767
Import taxes for the colonists on products made in Britain. Recognizing the colonists had been
pushed too far, Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770, except for the tax on tea.
John Dickinson, Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer, 1767
Dickinson was landowner and lawyer who published his "Letters" to argue that taxation without
representation violated the colonists' rights as English citizens.
Boston Massacre, 1770
British troops killed five colonists by firing on a mob of people who had been taunting them and
Boston Tea Party, 1773
As a protest against a British monopoly on tea, colonists disguised as Mohawk Indians boarded
three British ships and dumped a shipments of tea into Boston harbor.
First Continental Congress, 1774
Delegates from every colony except Georgia met in Philadelphia and asserted their rights as
Battle of Lexington and Concord, 1775
Battle between British soldiers and American "Minutemen" outside Boston that began the
Second Continental Congress, 1775
Delegates from the thirteen colonies met in Philadelphia to create a Continental army and
prepare the colonies for war against Britain.
British philosopher of the late 17th century whose ideas influenced the writing of the Declaration
of Independence and the creation of the United States. He argued that sovereignty resides in the
people, who have natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
republican form of government
Free people govern themselves without a king through elected representatives of the people
Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776
Common Sense was pamphlet that attacked the British monarchy, calling for American
independence from Britain.
Declaration of Independence, 1776
A formal statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress declaring the American colonies
Scottish philosopher (1723-1790) whose ideas helped fuel the creation of the market system in
the U.S. He believed free market competition would benefit society as a whole by keeping prices
low and building in an incentive for a wide variety of goods and services.
Battle of Saratoga, 1777
Battle that marked the turning point of the American Revolution, convincing France to aid the
Treaty of Alliance, 1778
Alliance between the Americans and French in war against Britain. France recognized U.S.
independence from Britain. (Note: This was the first and only treaty of alliance made by the U.S.
until NATO was created in 1949.)
Battle of Yorktown, 1781
The British army surrendered to General George Washington and the Continental Army, virtually
bringing the American Revolution to an end.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Treaty that ended the American Revolution, securing American independence from Britain.
A league of five (later six) Iroquois nations that was a powerful force influencing French, Dutch,
and British policy in the northeastern colonies for over 200 years.
Chief Little Turtle
Indian chief who formed the Western Confederation in the northwest territories and led his
followers to many victories against U.S. forces in the 1790s. His forces were defeated at the
Battle of Fallen Timbers, which led to the signing of the Treaty of Greenville.
Articles of Confederation, 1781-1789
First constitution of the United States. Created a national government with limited powers.
Shays' Rebellion, 1786-1787
Rebellion of debtor farmers in Massachusetts led by Daniel Shays. After the rebellion was
crushed by the Massachusetts state militia, many prominent American leaders called for a
strengthening of the national government to prevent such rebellions in the future.
Constitutional Convention, 1787
The convention to write a new constitution for the United States met from May through
September in 1787.
Compromise at the Constitutional Convention by which Congress would have two houses — the
Senate (where each state would get the equal representation of two senators) and the House of
Representatives (where representation would be based on population).
Federalist Papers, 1787-1788
85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of the
ratification of the U.S. Constitution
Ratification of the U.S. Constitution and the Creation of a New Government, 1788-1789
The U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1788, led to the creation of a new national government on March
4, 1789. The Constitution created a republican form of government within a federal system,
limited by a separation of powers.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Law establishing the Supreme Court and the lower federal courts. President Washington
appointed John Jay as the first chief justice of the United States
Bill of Rights, 1791
During the ratification process for the U.S. Constitution, demands for greater guarantees of rights
resulted in a promise for the addition of a Bill of Rights to the new Constitution. A Bill of Rights
was added to the Constitution by 1791. (3.2-IIC)
Commander in chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. First President of
the United States under the U.S. Constitution
American writer, scientist, inventor, and diplomat who negotiated the Treaty of Alliance with
France during the American Revolution. Franklin also negotiated the treaty ending the American
Revolution and attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787
Revolutionary leader who played an instrumental role in the vote for American independence.
After the American Revolution he served as U.S. minister to Great Britain, first vice-president of
the United States and second president of the United States.
Chief author of the Declaration of Independence, governor of Virginia during the American
Revolution, U.S. minister to France after the Revolution, second vice-president, and third
president of the United States
Virginia planter, political theorist, delegate to the Constitutional Convention, and co-author of the
Federalist Papers. His work in creating the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights has earned him
the title "father of the Constitution."
First Secretary of the Treasury who funded the national debt through excise taxes, tariffs, and the
sale of western land. As Secretary of Treasury he also used the power of the national government
to assume state debts and create a Bank of the United States.
French Revolution, 1789
Period of radical social and political change throughout Europe that began with an uprising
against the king of France.
Leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791 which led to the
creation of the independent republic of Haiti in 1804
Latin American Wars of Independence
Revolutions of the late 18th and early 19th centuries that resulted in the creation of independent
nations throughout Latin America
Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793
Without using the word "neutrality," Washington proclaimed the U.S. would give no military
support to the French in their war against Britain. At the time, the U.S. had a treaty of alliance with
France. Washington did not formally repudiate that alliance.
Jay's Treaty, 1795
Treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain that ensured American neutrality in the British-French
XYZ Affair, 1797
American envoys to France were told that the U.S. would need to loan France money and bribe
government officials as a precondition for meeting with French officials. This led to a "Quasi-War"
between the U.S. and France that lasted until 1800.
Washington's Farewell Address, 1796
President Washington warned about the dangers of divisive political parties and permanent
Political party associated with Alexander Hamilton. Federalists supported Britain in its war against
France. (Domestically, Federalists supported a strong federal government, a loose interpretation
of the U.S. Constitution, a Bank of the United States, and revenue tariffs.)
Political party associated with Thomas Jefferson. Democratic-Republicans supported France in
its war against Britain. (Domestically, Federalists supported states' rights and a strict
interpretation of the U.S. Constitution. They were opposed to a Bank of the United States and
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Under President Washington, the Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, introduced
policies to fund the federal debt at par and federal assumption of state banks. Hamilton also
established a first Bank of the United States.
First Bank of the United States, 1791
Privately-owned bank that operated as both a commercial bank and fiscal agent for the U.S.
government. Based in Philadelphia, the bank was granted a 20-year charter in 1791 by the U.S.
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
A protest by grain farmers in western Pennsylvania against the federal tax on whiskey. Militia
forces, led by President Washington, ended the uprising.
Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798
Laws passed by the U.S. Congress that prevented immigrants from participating in politics and to
silence those who criticized the Federalist Party and the U.S. government.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798
Statements authored secretly by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in response to the Alien
and Sedition Acts. The Resolutions asserted the right of states to veto federal legislation.
Pennsylvania Gradual Emancipation Law, 1780
Law that made Pennsylvania the first state to abolish slavery. The law provided that no child born
after the date of its passage would be a slave.
Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794
Kentucky riflemen defeated several Indian tribes, bringing an end to Indian resistance in the
Treaty of Greenville, 1795
The U.S. agreed to pay northwestern Indians for the land that later became the state of Ohio
A view of womanhood after the American Revolution that stressed the importance of women in
raising children with republican virtues such as patriotism and honor.
Mercy Otis Warren
Massachusetts playwright, poet, and historian who wrote some of the most popular and effective
propaganda for the American cause during the American revolution. In 1805, she published the
first history of the American Revolution.
Wife of revolutionary leader John Adams who advised him to "remember the ladies" when the
nation's leaders spoke of liberty and equality
As settlers moved westward the the 1780s, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance for
admitting new states and sought to promote public education, the protection of private property,
and the restriction of slavery in the Northwest Territory. (3.3-IIA)
Pinckney's Treaty, 1795
Treaty between the U.S. and Spain that that defined the boundaries between the U.S. and
Spanish colonies and granted the U.S. navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
French political philosopher who wrote about how
to preserve freedom in a world where human beings are increasingly
dependent on one another for the satisfaction of their needs.
tariff and currency disputes
Control of taxation and tariffs was left to the
states, and each state could issue its own currency. In disputes between
states Congress served as mediator and judge, but could not require a state
to accept its decisions.
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