22 terms

10 - Unification and Nationalism IDs Part 2

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Waterloo
This was a battle between Emperor Napoleon and the combined armies of the Seventh Coalition. This was the culminating battle of the Waterloo Campaign and at this battle, Napoleon lost to the the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard von Blucher. This was the last battle of Napoleon because it marked the end of his reign as Napoleon. After this battle, Louis XVIII was returned to power and Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena.
St. Helena
it is an island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It is part of the British overseas territory but was discovered by the Portuguese in 1502. The British sent exiles to the island, such as Napoleon. He arrived on the island in 1815 and died in May 1821.
Congress of Vienna
(1815) meeting of the allies who defeated Napoleon (Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain); it restored the French monarchy and created the international alliance Concert of Europe.
Clemens von Metternich
(1773- 1822) He was the Austrian Chancellor Prince. He was a very dominant figure in the Congress of Vienna. HE was born in the German Rhineland and entered the diplomatic Service of Vienna. He was able to rise to be the minister of foreign affairs in 1809. He was very handsome and confident. He was well educated (spoke 5 languages), and he had an incredible ability to understand the potential consequences of any diplomatic situation. He believed Europe would only find peace with no one powerful monarch, such as Napoleon.
Robert Castlereagh
he is a diplomat that the British monarchy sent to the congress of Vienna to represent Britian's interest in return in restoring back to peace. Spokesperson for the British government, he had a lot of influence over the congress of Vienna, because Britain was the leading force in the Europe. They wanted free trade in the seas, to gain economic power, they weren't so interested in gaining land. He wanted a decleration of free sea trade. He doesn't want france back on the trade route or having economic power. He always feared Russian expansion.
Alexander I
(Tsar 1801-25) he was the first of Poland's new line of kings within the rule of Russia.
Edmund Burke
British writer, who during the Revolution had argued that monarchical stability and noble privilege were inseparable, the natural pillars of order, along with religion, on which society must stand.
Joseph de Maistre
He was a philosopher from Savoy. He was a very influential spokesman for hierarchical monarchical state in the period following the French Revolution. Although he was very tied to France, h served the king of Piedmont- Sardinia. In the Counter- Enlightenment, he strongly argued in favor of hereditary monarchy, state recognition of the church, and indirect authority of the Pope.
Carlsbad Decrees
A series of repressive measures by Fredrick William III and Austrian emperor Francis I. The Diet of the German Confederation accepted. This was to stop the uprising of fraternities celebrating the 300th anniversary of Martin Luther's revolt against the papacy.
German Confederation
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Louis XVIII
He was the Count of Province, Louis XVI's brother, entered Paris May 3rd, 1814. He signed a constitution that recognized equality before the law, freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and established Catholicism as the state religion. During the 100 Days when Napoleon marched on Paris, Louis XVIII fled for Belgium. The restoration of the Bourbon Monarchy in France coincided with the political economic rise of nobles throughout Europe.
Charter
Louis XVIII of France signed this that granted his people public liberties. It affirmed monarchial rule by divine right, equality before the law, freedom of expression, freedom of religion, and freedom of the press. It showed that even though Napoleon's influence was being removed, some effects of the Revolution stayed intact. It also accepted the Napoleonic Civil Code.
Ultra-Royalists
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Bourbon Restoration
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Charles X
He was the King of France from 1824-1830 he succeeded his brother Louis XVIII. He embodied conservatism and "had learned nothing and forgotten nothing during the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. He attempted to undo the effects of the revolution and he produced than outpouring of opposition in 1830 which forced him to abdicate the throne.
Treaty of Adrianople
it was signed in September 14, 1829. Concluded war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire by allowing Russia to occupy Moldavia and Wallachia
Constantine
he was the grand duke of Russia and the brother of Alexander I. After Alexander's death he was offered the throne of Russia bu refused it and gave it to his youngest brother Nicholas. When the Decembrists revolted they wanted to replace Nicholas with him.
Nicholas
(1825-1855) He was Alexander's brother. His education was limited to military matters and his top officials were military men. He believed his power to govern came from God. He tightened the education in an attempt to exclude Western ideas from Russia. He didn't approve of serfdom, but he feared insurrection. He encouraged reforms improving the conditions of state peasants. He held onto the old system.
Decembrists
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Official Nationality
the minister of education in Russia proclaimed this doctrine - autocracy, orthodoxy, and nationality. They were the intertwined principles of the state and were to be defended at all costs.
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
(1754-1838) became the intermediary and exploited tensions between the allies (especially between Prussia and Austria). He symbolized the "party of peace", which opposed extending the empire past necessary limits that could be effectively administered.
Concert of Europe
a group formed by Great Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia, and defeated France with the intent to maintain the status quo in Europe. After the second fall of Napoleon.