Biology Test 1

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Terms in this set (80)
EcosystemA system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with their physical environmentGenotypegenetic makeup of an organismPhenotypeAn organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.horizontal gene transfertransfer of genes between cells of the same generationVertical Descent with Mutationthrough changes in DNA, new species arise from pre-existing speciesTaxonomyThe science of classifying organismsDomainsBacteria, Archaea, EukaryaBacteriasingle-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotesArchaeaOne of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Bacteria.Eukaryoteorganism whose cells contain a nucleusatomic nucleusAn atom's dense central core, containing protons and neutrons.electron clouda region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be foundvalence shellThe outermost energy shell of an atom, containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom.IsotopesAtoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutronsEntropyA measure of disorder or randomness.Enthalpytotal energy of a systemionic bondFormed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to anotherCationA positively charged ionAnionA negatively charged ioncovalent bondelectrons are shared to fill valance shellschemical reactionConsist of reactants and products. Most chemical reactions require energyoxidation-reduction reactiona reaction in which electrons are transferred from one reactant to anotherpolar covalent bondA covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally (hydrogen and oxygen form this)hydrogen bondAttraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom and a slightly negative atom.Cohesionan attraction between molecules of the same substanceAdhesionattraction between molecules of different substancesOrganic compounds containCarbonMacromoleculeslarge, complex organic moleculesfunctional groupsgroups of atoms with characteristic chemical features and propertiesCarbohydratesBuilt from monosaccharidesDisaccharideA double sugar molecule made of two monosaccharides bonded together through dehydration synthesis.PolysaccharidesCarbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharidesLipidsEnergy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.SaturatedAll carbons linked by a single bondUnsaturatedContain one or more double bondsPhospholipidsa lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.Steroidslipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused ringsamino acidsbuilding blocks of proteinsPeptidesPolar covalent bond between two amino acidsPolypeptidesThree or more amino acids linked togetherDesaturationThe change in the shape of a protein; caused by extreme heatprimary structuresequence of amino acidssecondary structureThe localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between amino acids.teriary structurerefers to the overall 3D shape of a polypeptidequaternary structureResults from two or more polypeptide subunits.DNAA complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.RNADecodes DNA into instructions for linking together a specific sequence of amino acids to form a polypeptide chainAdenine pairs withThymine or UracilCytosine pairs withGuaninePyrimidinescytosine, thymine, uracilPurinesAdenine and Guaninecell theoryidea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cellsMitochondrionan organelle containing enzymes responsible for producing energyChloroplastAn organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occursMitochondriaPowerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) productionCytosolRegion of a eukaryotic cell that is outside the cell organelles but inside the plasma membraneCytoskeletonA network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movementmotor proteinsthe proteins required to interact with cytoskeleton for cell motilityEndoplasmic ReticulumNetwork of membranes that form flattened, fluid-filled tubules or cisternaeRough Endoplasmic ReticulumSystem of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasmSmooth Endoplasmic ReticulumAn endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.Golgi apparatusStack of flattened membranes with three overlapping functions: secretion, processing, and protein sortingLysosomesSpecialize vesicles that contain acid hydrolases that perform hydrolysisAutophagyrecycling of worn-out organelles through endocytosismembrane structureMaintaining homeostasisfluid mosaic modelStructural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.lipid raftslipids assembled in a defined patch in the cell membrane, contains a high concentration of cholesterollipid exchange proteinsextract lipid from one membrane for insertion in anotherGlycosylationProcess of covalently attaching a carbohydrate to a protein or lipidselectively permeabilitycharacteristic of the plasma membrane which allows certain materials in or out of the cell (high perm= gases and small uncharged particles) (low perm= polar organic molecules and ions)