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3 p's FINAL review Hamouda P1 Fall
Terms in this set (118)
Which one of the following Types of Receptors mediates the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid?
ligand-gated ion channel
Which one of the following Types of Receptors mediates the effect of Epinephrine?
G-protein coupled receptor
Which one of the following Types of Receptors mediates the effect of Steroid hormones?
Intracellular receptor affecting gene transcription
Which one of the following Types of Receptors mediates the effect of Acetylcholine?
ligand-gated ion channel & G-protein coupled receptors
Which of the following is NOT a normal step that is involved in G-protein couple receptor mechanism?
agonist binds to the effector **steps include: GTP hydrolysis, G-protein activation, & effector activation
Molecule that inhibits target activation but does not bind at same site as agonists is called?
Molecule that binds to target and directly blocks the binding of agonists is called?
Molecule that binds to and activates its target to less than the maximum extent possible is called?
Which one of the following Types of Receptors mediates the effect of Insulin?
receptor tyrosine kinase
Molecule that binds to and activates its target is called?
An antagonist that does not bind at the same receptor as the agonist is know as?
An antagonist that inactivates the agonist before agonist binds to its target is known as?
________ is a molecule that prevents the action of agonist but has no effect in the absence of agonist.
An antagonist that reversibly binds at the same binding site as the agonist is known as?
The dose of drug that produce lethal effect in 50% of a population is known as?
median lethal dose (LD50)
The dose of drug that produce toxic effect in 50% of a population is knows as?
median toxic dose (TD50)
_________ is the maximal response produced by a drug.
The concentration at which a drug elicits 50% of its maximal response is knows as?
The dose of drug that produce therapeutic effect in 50% of a population is knows as?
median effective dose (ED50)
_________ is defined as the concentration of ligand at which 50% of available receptors are occupied.
dissociation constant (Kd)
All ganglia have nicotinic acetylcholine receptors? (True/False)
Alpha/Beta muscarinic receptors are located on skeletal muscles/glands while nicotinic receptors are found on smooth muscles? (True/False)
Anticholinergic drugs (anti-histamines) cause side effects such as excessive secretions? (True/False)
Anticholinergics (muscarinic agonists) can be used to overcome the effects of increased levels of acetylcholine? (True/False)
Anticholinergics can mimic the "Rest and Digest"? (True/False)
The central nervous system in divided into which parts?
Brain & spinal cord
The afferent division is known as what?
The efferent division of the PNS is known as the sensory division. It is composed of the autonomic and the somatic? (True/False)
If a neurotoxin "turns off" afferent nerve fibers, what will be affected?
Botox and excess amounts of Neosporin share similarities in how they work to produce muscle paralysis. The way they do this is by?
vesicle docking & release
The neuron terminal is rich in what type of voltage-gated channel?
The sudden increase in intracellular _________ causes another protein to bind to the SNARE complex. The shape of the complex changes, causing ______________________.
calcium; the vesicle to fuse with the cell membrane & releasing chemicals called neurotransmitters into the synapse.
Muscarinic receptors are found on what? (Rest and Digest)
Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) use multiple G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) types to exert various biological effects? (True/False)
Duration and frequency of neuronal action potential is limited by properties of voltage-gated ___________ channels.
"Surround Inhibition" which restricts neuronal activity to a defined area with a neuronal network is mediated by _______________ interneurons.
Which of the following voltage-gated calcium channels present in the thalamus and implicated in the pathology of absence (petit mal) seizures?
A seizure that is associated with contraction of a muscle or group of muscles for a second or less is known as?
Neurotransmitter release from the presynaptic terminal requires entry of calcium into the presynaptic terminal through which of the following ion channels?
voltage-gated HVA-type Ca+2 channel
The endogenous neurotransmitter, Glutamate increases the permeability for Ca2+ through which of the following ion channels?
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDR)
Which of the following receptors mediates inhibitory neurotransmission?
gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABA-A) receptor
A seizure that is associated with sustained contractions followed by rhythmic movements and loss of consciousness is known as?
tonic-clonic seizure (grand mal)
A seizure that is associated with blank stare and brief interruption of consciousness is known as?
absence seizure (petit mal)
A seizure that is associated with involuntary, repetitive movement without loss of consciousness is known as?
Voltage-gated HVA-type calcium Channel
presynaptic calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release
Voltage-gated T-type calcium Channels
Thalamic 3-Hz spike-and-wave EEG pattern
voltage-gated sodium channels
Propagation of action potential along axonal membranes
A ligand-gated chloride channel
Inhibitory neurotransmission using GABA as neurotransmitter
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDR)
excitatory neurotransmission using glutamate as neurotransmitter
positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptor
inhibit voltage-gated T-type calcium Channels
inhibit voltage-gated HVA-type calcium Channels
prolong inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channel
Pain that persists long after recovery from an injury is called?
Describe acute pain
-occurs in response to an injury
-usually resolves with healing
Acute pain signal is typically transmitted via __________ nerve fiber.
type A delta
Describe type C nerve fibers
-transmit dull & diffused pain
Transduction of pain signal describes a process that occurs at the level of?
sensory nerve endings
Which of the following mediators/neurotransmitters is the least likely to increase pain intensity?
Neuronal circuits that responsible for conduction and transmission of painful stimuli from site of injury to various areas of the central nervous system is known as?
ascending pain pathways
Activation of descending pain pathways?
decreases signal transmission in response to painful stimulus
Which of the following statements best describes allodynia?
feeling pain in response to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain
___________ nerve fibers are implicated in increased pain sensitivity (feeling pain to non-painful stimuli such as light touch).
type A beta
What is the mechanism of action for the naproxen?
inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
Which of the following statement about aspirin is NOT correct?
clinically available as "baby aspirin" for use in children
Which of the following side effect is more common with COX-2 selective inhibitor than non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors?
cardiovascular side effects such as blood clotting & stroke
Which of the following side effect is more common with COX-1 inhibitors than COX-2 inhibitors?
gastrointestinal effects such as bleeding & peptic ulcers
If taken at high doses, which medication can cause respiratory depression?
Which of the following mediators/neurotransmitters is relaeased at site of injury and increase pain intensity?
prostaglandin E & substance P
The therapeutic effects of Gabapentin are mediated by?
inhibition of voltage gated Ca +2 channel
Select the drug that is a μ(mu) receptor partial agonist.
Select the drug that is a μ(mu) receptor antagonist.
Select the drug that does not bind to a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR).
Select the drug that is a μ(mu) receptor agonist.
Select the drug that does not bind to a voltage-gated ion channel.
Select the drug that has the least effect on cyclooxygenase 1 enzyme (COX-1).
Select the drug that has the least effect on cyclooxygenase 2 enzyme (COX-2).
Select the drug that irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) enzyme.
Select the drug that inhibits prostaglandin synthesis.
What are 2 locations that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors can be found?
on post-ganglionic neurons & the adrenal medulla
What will happen to the body in response to sudden stress ("fight or flight")?
What is the effect of stimulating alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in blood vessels?
alpha receptors cause vasoconstriction, beta receptors cause vasodilation
What type of ANS receptor, located on airway smooth muscle, will cause bronchodilation when activated?
In an emergency situation, a person may experience 'fight or flight'. What neurotransmitter or hormone is released during these times?
What type of drug would be most likely to be dangerous to specifically to a person who has trouble breathing (such as asthma)?
beta-receptor antagonist (i.e. propranolol)
What happens to norepinephrine in the presence of tyramine and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor?
more norepinephrine is released into the synapse & less norepinephrine is removed into the synapse
Why does combining wine, cheese and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor result in a dangerous increase in blood pressure?
More norepinephrine is released into the synapse & less norepinephrine is removed from the synapse
How is acetylcholine removed from synapses?
Initial enzymatic degradation followed by reuptake
What ion channel is activated to initiate neurotransmitter release into a synapse?
voltage gated calcium channels
What type of ion channel is primarily responsible for conducting action potentials down axons?
voltage gated sodium channels
Which neurotransmitter activates inhibitory ligand gated ion channels?
In what division of the nervous system would you find somatic motor nerves?
efferent nervous system (efferent= effort) **somatic= voluntary
Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) irreversibly inhibits which of the following enzymes?
Cyclooxygenases (COX-1 &COX-2)
A saturation binding curve describing the binding of a ligand to its target receptor can be useful to determine?
the affinity of the ligand at this receptor
The dose-response curve of an agonist in the presence of a non-competitive antagonist typically reflects?
decreases in the maximum effect attenable by the agonist
In the presence of a competitive antagonist, the dose-response curve of an agonist will be altered in a such a way that?
the potency of agonist is decreased
Activation of Alpha 2 Adrenergic Receptors, Dopamine (D2) Receptors, and Mu Opioid Receptors result in?
Activation of Gi (G gamma i) protein
Activation of Alpha 1 Adrenergic receptors, Histamine (H1) Receptors, and Muscarinic M1 receptors result in?
Activation of Phospholipase C (PLC)
Activation of Beta-adrenergic receptors, Histamine (H2) Receptors, and adenosine receptors result in?
Activation of Adenylyl Cyclase (AC) enzyme
A ligand that reversibly binds at the same binding site as the agonist, has no effect in the absence of agonist, and prevents the action of agonist is called?
(reversibly bind= competitive & irreversibly bind= non-competitive)
A ligand (Z) binds at a different site than Histamine in Histamine (H1) receptor and inhibits Histamine effect. This molecule acts as a ____________ of Histamine (H1) receptor.
A ligand (Y) is known to bind reversibly to the same binding site as GABA in the GABA type A receptor but has no intrinsic activity at GABA type A receptor. This ligand is expected to act as a __________ of GABA type A receptor.
A ligand (X) was applied at a high concentration that fully occupied Dopamine D1 receptors. However, its effect was only 60% of the maximum effect of Dopamine. This ligand acts as ____________ of Dopamine D1 receptors.
What is the common pharmacological effect of non depolarizing neuromuscular blockers & depolarizing neuromuscular blocker?
producing muscle relaxation
Local anesthetics (e.g. prilocaine) can prevent generation & conduction of nerve impulses because they can?
block voltage-gated Na+ channels
A 56 yr old woman underwent surgery. She received an injected drug for incubation & skeletal muscle paralysis, & an inhaled drug to provide anesthesia. Which of the following drugs caused skeletal muscle paralysis?
Which of the following general anesthetics is the least potent (i.e. posses the highest minimum alveolar concentration, MAC)?
A 40 yr old man underwent surgery & received drug X for analgesia. He then develops hallucinations. Which of the following is drug X?
_______ route of administration demonstrates the highest variability in absorption.
________ route of administration has the highest "1st pass effect".
Cell membranes have _______ layers of lipids.
___________ membranes are essentially non-porous.
blood-brain barrier (safety net)
The characteristics of active transport include:
In healthy individuals, the kidneys can eliminate:
The general goal of drug metabolism is to transform:
non-polar to polar compounds
In drug metabolism:
phase II reactions attach endogenous compounds to the drug molecule
Phase I reactions include:
Which of the drugs is readily excreted into milk?
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