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Government Chapter 8
Terms in this set (15)
- During the performance of which duty do you think the president proposes policy changes? Explain your answer.
- delivering a State of the Union address to Congress each year.
How does the Twenty-second Amendment limit the president of the United States?
George Washington served eight years as president and refused to run for a third term. Other presidents followed his precedent until Franklin Roosevelt ran for third and fourth terms. Concern over too much executive power led Congress to propose and the states to ratify the Twenty-second Amendment in 1951. This amendment limits presidents to two terms. It also allows a vice president who takes over the presidency and serves two years or less of the former president's term to serve two additional terms. Thus, a president may serve up to 10 years.
- What qualifications for president does the Constitution list?
The Constitution requires that a president or a vice president be: A. a natural-born citizen of the United States, B. at least 35 years old, and C. a resident of the United States for at least 14 years before taking office.
- What is the order of presidential succession if the offices of president and vice president become vacant at the same time?
After the assassination of President Kennedy in 1963, Americans realized that the rules for presidential succession in the Constitution were not enough. So they ratified the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967. This amendment establishes the order of succession to the presidency and spells out what happens when the vice presidency becomes vacant. According to the amendment, the vice president becomes president if the president dies or is removed from office. If the office of vice president becomes vacant, the president appoints a vice president. If both the offices of president and vice president become vacant at the same time, the next in line for the presidency is the Speaker of the House. The president pro tempore of the Senate is next in line after the Speaker. Next are the cabinet officers, beginning with the secretary of state.
What determines the work responsibilities of a vice president?
A vice president's work depends on what responsibilities, if any, the president assigns. Fourteen vice presidents have become president. Of these, nine have succeeded to the office of president when a president died or resigned. Recent presidents have increased their vice presidents' responsibilities. Vice President Richard Cheney consults with President Bush and frequently represents him in meeting with important cabinet members, lawmakers, and foreign dignitaries. He has also led groups developing new policies in key areas such as energy.
How were the first electors in the Electoral College chosen?
Article II of the Constitution provided for each state to choose electors by a method the state legislature would set up. Each state would have as many electors as it had senators and representatives. At election time, the electors would meet in their own states and cast votes for president. No popular vote was cast for the early presidential elections. Electoral votes from all the states would be counted in Congress. The candidate with a majority of the votes would become president. The candidate with the second highest number of votes would become vice president. If no one received a majority, the House of Representatives would choose the president or vice president, with each state having one vote. In 1789 and 1792 every elector voted for George Washington as the first president.
Why was the Twelfth Amendment added to the Constitution?
In the presidential election of 1800, the Democratic-Republicans won a majority of the electoral votes, but both their candidates—Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr—received 73 votes. The House of Representatives voted 36 times before Jefferson was finally elected president and Burr was elected vice president. To prevent this problem from occurring again, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution in 1804. It requires that the electors cast separate ballots for president and vice president and that if no candidate receives a majority, the House chooses from the top three candidates. If no candidate for vice president gets a majority of electoral votes, the Senate chooses from the top two candidates for vice president. Since the 1820s, state political parties have chosen electors by popular vote. Parties also began to give the people more of a choice in nominating presidential candidates.
How is the number of electors in the Electoral College determined?
Parties choose their nominees for president every four years (1996, 2000, 2004, etc.) at conventions held in late summer. Voters cast their ballots for president on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The voters actually vote for all of their party's electors in their state. In December these electors will cast the official vote for president and vice president. Thus, a vote for the Democratic candidate is actually a vote for the Democratic electors, and a vote for the Republican candidate is actually a vote for the Republican electors. The Electoral College includes 538 electors—the total of the House and Senate members plus 3 for the District of Columbia. The winning candidate is usually announced on the same evening as the popular election because popular-vote counts indicate who won each state. Most states do not legally require electors to vote for the candidate who wins the popular vote, but electors usually do so.
Why do some people object to the election of the president by direct popular vote?
Have the people directly elect the president and vice president. This could rob states of their role in the election. Also, candidates could concentrate their efforts on large cities.
When and where does the president-elect take the oath of office?
The new president, called the president-elect until the inauguration, takes office at noon on January 20 following the election. The inaugural ceremony is held outside the Capitol in Washington, D.C., with members of Congress, foreign diplomats, and thousands of citizens attending. The chief justice administers the oath of office, and the new president gives a speech called the Inaugural Address. Then a parade goes from the Capitol to the White House. That evening official parties celebrate the inauguration.
Why are the names of candidates for cabinet positions sometimes leaked to the news media?
Key staff members meet with the candidates to discuss the issues facing the departments the candidates may be asked to head. Members of the president-elect's team may leak, or deliberately disclose, some candidates' names to the news media. They do this to test the reaction of Congress, interest groups, and the public.
Who usually makes up an "inner cabinet"?
Some cabinet heads work closely with a president because they head departments that are concerned with national issues. These are usually the attorney general and the secretaries of state, defense, and treasury. They are sometimes called an "inner cabinet."
Why may the president hesitate to discuss top-secret subjects at cabinet meetings?
Keeping secrets is difficult when 15 department heads are involved in a discussion. The president may hesitate to discuss top-secret subjects.
Which are the three oldest agencies of the Executive Office of the President?
During the 1930s, President Franklin D. Roosevelt felt overwhelmed by all the new programs created to deal with the country's problems. So Congress passed the Reorganization Act of 1939, which created the Executive Office of the President. At the same time, President Roosevelt moved the Bureau of the Budget out of the Treasury into the EOP. Roosevelt also established the White House Office. He intended it to be a small group of advisers who would work directly with the president. The Office of Management and Budget Once called the Bureau of the Budget, this is one of the oldest agencies. It is also the largest agency in the EOP. The National Security Council Congress created the National Security Council (NSC) in 1947. Its role is to advise the president and coordinate military and foreign policy. The president heads the council, which also includes the secretaries of defense and state. The importance of the NSC has varied with each president's use of it. The Council of Economic Advisers Created in 1946, the Council of Economic Advisers helps the president come up with the nation's economic policy. The Council looks at the nation's economic health, predicts future economic conditions, and helps other executive agencies that do economic planning. It also suggests answers to special problems, such as unemployment or inflation.
What are the duties of the White House press staff?
The press secretary and press staff, who handle the president's relations with White House reporters, set up press conferences, and issue public statements in the president's name.
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