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digital marketing midterm
Terms in this set (203)
What is Digital Marketing? How is it different from traditional marketing?
-enhances the value exchange
-use of the internet to reach consumers
The main difference between digital and traditional marketing is the medium through which an audience encounters a marketing message. While traditional marketing uses traditional media like magazines and newspapers, digital marketing uses digital media, such as social media or websites.
· What are the typical steps involved in an e-commerce transaction from a consumer standpoint?
1.) URL (www.amazon.com)
2.) URL to IP address (internet protocol)
3.) Amazon's homepage request is sent to Amazon's server
4.) Amazon's server receives request for homepage and browser type and cookies
5.) Amazon sends back HTML code back (static) or
6.) Java code (dynamic) tailored to customer's preferences
7.) customer's browser processes and displays the HTML code
**these steps repeat every time a client clicks on something on the website.
What do you mean by URL, domain name, IP address, web browser, server, and cookies?
URL-uniform resource locator, the address of a web page. (ex. www.amazon.com)
Domain name- the part of a network address that identifies it as belonging to a particular domain.
IP address- Internet Protocol, a unique string of characters that identifies each computer using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network.
web browser-used to access and view websites, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, and Apple Safari.
server-a computer or computer program which manages access to a centralized resource or service in a network.
cookies- help remember if you've come to the site before, unique identifier, small piece of code placed on a client computer during previous visits.
How is a request for a webpage fulfilled? What are the technical steps involved in a typical request sent by a requesting computer (e.g., a consumer's laptop) to a domain server?
· What is HTML? What is the difference between a static and a dynamic webpage?
HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It allows the user to create and structure sections, paragraphs, headings, links, and blockquotes for web pages and applications.
In static web pages, Pages will remain same until someone changes it manually. In dynamic web pages, Content of pages are different for different visitors.
What is the difference between a domain name and a URL?
A URL is a complete web address used to find a particular web page. While the domain is the name of the website, a URL will lead to any one of the pages within the website.
The URL is a string of information providing the complete address of the web page on the internet. Whereas domain name is a part of URL which is a user-friendly form of IP address. We use the URL for identifying a particular web page.
For example, http://www.abzwebpedia.com/index.html is a complete URL. "abzwebpedia.com" is the domain name.
What is TLS? What is its purpose? What is the difference between http and https?
-Transport Layer Security- an encryption method to prevent eavesdropping
-HTTPS is HTTP with encryption. The only difference between the two protocols is that HTTPS uses TLS (SSL) to encrypt normal HTTP requests and responses. As a result, HTTPS is far more secure than HTTP.
What are client-side coding languages? How does HTML differ from Java?
-The client-side web application display is a mix of HTML, CSS, and Java
-HTML is used to develop only Static pages. On the other hand, JAVA is a programming language which is used to develop web applications. It is a scripting language which is used to develop dynamic web applications.
What is web hosting? Why do companies go for it? Name a few sites that offer web hosting.
When a hosting provider allocates space on a web server for a website to store its files, they are hosting a website. Web hosting makes the files that comprise a website (code, images, etc.) available for viewing online.
when you host your files on a hosting company's web server they're available 24/7, so your website will always be accessible on the web. Your web host is also responsible for things like server maintenance, keeping the software and hardware up to date, troubleshooting, and more.
-bluehost, dreamhost, go daddy
· What makes an ecommerce website successful? Know the AIDA model.
-following the AIDA model and successful website objectives
What are the three major objectives of an ecommerce website? How do these map onto the AIDA model?
successful website objectives
1.) generate traffic (awareness)
2.) drive conversion (interest & desire)
3.) maximize revenue per conversion (action)
What are the three types of online traffic? Know with examples.
1.) direct traffic (typing in website)
2.) referral traffic (link from another website)
3.) search traffic (consumer searching for your service/ searching for keyword product)
mobile apps, email link, chat link, bookmarked pages
banner ads, article
logo listed on top of search, ad
Why is direct online traffic good for a company?
for brand recognition/ salience (top of the mind of consumers, consumer awareness)
Classify referral and search traffic into paid and unpaid (or organic) traffic.
-Paid: banner ads, text ads, video ads
-Unpaid: article, blog, social media
-Paid: Ad logo listed on top of search
-Unpaid- search without logo
How would you define a typical conversion for an ecommerce (or retail) website?
conversion is a target action that you wish your visitors to take.
how many customers turn into $$ expressed as a %
What is a KPI? How is Conversion Rate calculated?
-key performance indicator
(conversion rate is KPI for retail website)
Conversion Rate: transactions/visits x100
What is CTR? How is it calculated?
-click through rate
What are the primary and some secondary conversions for different websites such as ecommerce/retail, lead generation sites, search engines, media sites, social media sites, affiliate sites, and marketplace sites? Know at least one example of each such site.
ecommerce/retail primary KPI- Conversions in form of product purchases (CTR)
social media account primary KPI- just making an account (primary),
pageviews, video views, shares, tweets, likes (secondary)
Define a lead
A potential customer in your target audience whom is interested in your product or service
How do specific websites maximize revenues beyond just a one-time conversion?
-want to continue relationship with customer
retail: push for ad ons
lead generation: focusing on traffic sources that lead to more lucrative deals
search engine: encouraging lucrative deals
media- auidence profiling and targeting
social media: customized advertising based on personal information
· Why is it important for a company to work hard on its website design?
-most important thing, first thing consumers look for
-digital destination for current customers/potential customers
· How is a website's quality evaluated? Is it solely based on the visual aesthetics of the website?
no, usability too (see web design principles)
What are the five major web design principles that we covered in class?
1.) design for usability
2.) conversion centered design
3.) 3 questions framework
4.) segments approach
5.) mobile first approach
What entails the Design for Usability principle? Give examples of specific website aspects that you can improve using this principle.
-make it obvious, what's clickable
-follow web conventions, create visual hierarchies, break page into defined areas
-avoid distractions, user experience (company logo, search box)
What do you mean by UX? Why is it important to design your website for optimal UX?
UX- user experience
UX design revolves around the customer and their feelings. It's about giving the customer the best possible experience to make them want to come back.
When a website has great UX design, customers may not even notice it. Its design is intuitive and has clear navigation and concise direction, allowing your visitor to go exactly where they need to. In addition, the task that leads to your website's goal (making a purchase, calling for a quote, etc) is clear and simple.
What do you mean by visual hierarchies and defined areas?
above fold, what should be seen first
-Visual hierarchy is the principle of arranging elements to show their order of importance. Designers structure visual characteristics—e.g., menu icons—so users can understand information easily
What is the Fold? How does positioning website content around it affect the UX?
The fold is a term used by web designers and Internet marketers to describe a web browser window's bottom border. "Above the fold" refers to web content that is visible above the border when a page first loads
-bc user experience should be simple and easy to understand to make ppl keep coming back, so the content above the fold should be straight forward and easy to understand
UX Design's fundamental principles actually lie within the functionality of a site; the user journey, the micro-moments, the positioning of key elements etc., which all serve to positively affecting cornerstone areas of your online presence, such as:
Increasing your conversion rates
Lowering your bounce rate
Increasing traffic to your website
What aspects are important to consider while following a Conversion-Centered Design for your website?
-attention, context, clarity, congruence(Action from customers), credibility,(Trust from customers) closing(towards final action), continuance (encourage customers back)
What do you mean by a CTA? Give some examples of CTAs.
Call to Action
"watch now" "subscribe today" "shop now"
Call to action is a marketing term for any device designed to prompt an immediate response or encourage an immediate sale.
-telling consumers to do something or buy something
What specific questions does the Three Questions Framework attempt to answer?
1. what are you offering
2. why should i pick you
3. What do you want me to do next
-should especially answer these questions above the fold
· What is Segments Approach to website design? Know with examples.
-website should have segments for different people, like a browser section and a shopping section.
-conversion (new vs. returning customers) or (browser/shopper vs. searcher/buyer)
-more dedicated to potential customers, process should appeal to a variety of customers
· What is the Mobile First Approach? Why is it important? Know with examples.
design for smaller screens first and add features/content for larger screens later
-important bc people use their phones more than computers.
-if it works on smaller screen, larger screen should follow easily
· What do you mean by RWD? How does it help the UX?
RWD- responsive web design (fixes mobile browsing issues)
-it is coding webpage content (Text, images, navigation) to detect the website visitor's screen size and automatically resizing/rearranging those elements to optimize their display
What is CRO? Why is it important? Know the CRO guidelines
-Conversion Rate Optimization- testing different designs and seeing which yields you the highest conversion rate.
Guidelines- analytics, UX testing, web design principles, avoid redesigns
· What is A/B Testing? Which Google platform can you use to conduct A/B testing for your website?
"always be testing"
-ONLY change one element at a time.
-Google website optimizer
· Name some critical webpage elements.
website structure- home page, main sections(Site index), subsections (context)
· In what ways can a website communicate trust and signal credibility to its consumers?
positive publicity, video demonstrations/testimonials, social media presence
· What does a typical website structure look like?
home page, main sections(Site index), subsections (context)
· What is a Landing Page? What qualifies as a landing page?
the first page that a visitor sees on a website
ex. homepage, page opened after clicking on an online ad, email link, search result link
· What does NSAMCWADLP stand for? Why is it important to consider as a principle?
The Golden Rule
"Never Start a Marketing Campaign Without a Dedicated Landing Page"
· On what criteria should a landing page be designed?
-should match the clicked ad on 3 dimensions
1. product or service
3. visual components
-there is no single way to design a LP but well designed webpages facilitate desired consumer behavior and continually strive to improve CRO and therefore profitability
· What are the different types of landing pages? Give examples.
1. Single product LP
2. Multi product LP
3. Lead generation LP
4. Subscription LP
5. Single Purpose LP
· Define SEO. What is the difference between on-site and off-site SEO?
Seo- search engine optimization (efforts at improving the search engine rankings of a website for a specific keyword or a set of keywords)
on site SEO: designing the content/structure of a website so it ranks well on search phrases that are relevant to one's website
Off site SEO- improve popularity of one's website on other sites
· What does a meaningful or relevant search result mean?
-identify relevant keywords, improving webpage relevance, ranking for a set of keywords
· What are the major goals of a digital marketer while working on on-site SEO?
identify relevant keywords, improving webpage relevance, ranking for a set of keywords, identifying technical issues impending web rankings
-SEO focuses on organic search results
· What is a SERP? What is a Keyword?
Search engine results page
-a keyword is a significant word or phrase that relates to the content of your website
-on the SERP you click on the most promising link.
· Classify a SERP into organic and paid listings.
-want to be the #1 ORGANIC search result on the SERP. there is no paid result. you are the number 1 result without having to pay for anything. Your search result is above the fold (if company can do this then may get conversion)
-paid has the AD logo
· Does SEO concern organic or paid listings on a SERP?
· How do search engines provide content to a searching consumer?
-meaningful result to a consumer at the top
-provide high quality content as a result to a search query
-your website should be relevant to the searched phrase/keyword
· What are the primary goals of a search engine? How are these goals different from that of a website attempting to rank well on a SERP?
primary KPI for a search engine- CTR=#clicks/#impressions
traffic, conversions, revenue
· How does a website improving its on-site SEO help a search engine do its job better?
In essence, good on-site SEO helps search engines understand what a human would see (and what value they would get) if they visited a page, so that search engines can reliably serve up what human visitors would consider high-quality content about a particular search query (keyword).
· What do you mean by maximizing relevance under SEO?
When dealing with search engines, the term 'relevance' describes the extent to which the content of a website corresponds to the search term used. The relevance of a website's content is particularly important for search engines; it affects how high a website will appear in the search results for a given search term.
-website should be relevant to the searched phrase/keyword
If conversion rate is the primary KPI for an ecommerce website, what is the primary KPI for a search engine? Can this primary search engine KPI be considered a secondary KPI for the ecommerce website? Why? Conversely, can the primary ecommerce website KPI be considered a secondary KPI for the search engine? Why?
primary KPI (for search engine) - CTR (#clicks/#impressions)
· What does a search engine rank? Websites or webpages?
· Why do we need to optimize each one of our webpages for SEO?
If your page doesn't provide all of the necessary information that a search engine needs to understand it, it probably won't rank well in search results. Even worse, the sites that outrank yours likely belong to your competitors.
This means that if you want to reach potential customers, search engines need to be able to understand your site. And the more pages you optimize, the better they'll be able to do just that.
List the four major keyword selection principles.
traffic (how many ppl search the keyword)
current ranking (where you rank with keyword)
· How do companies decide on relevant keywords for their website?
Google Keyword Planner (Adwords)
Think like a customer. Identify your target audience and put yourself into the shoes of a customer when you create your initial list of keywords. ...
Study the competition. ...
Understand the long tail keyword. ...
Use keyword research tools. ...
Analyze the results.
· What do you mean by search demand for a particular keyword? Should it be low or high?
The number of searches for any particular query is referred to as keyword demand. So, although search referrals tell you how many of those searchers clicked through to your site, keyword demand tells you how many searchers used that keyword in total.
-how many people search for your keyword, high
· Name some platforms that help in keyword research.
Google Ad Words
Moz Keyword Explorer
· What do you mean by keyword competition?
the number of advertisers worldwide bidding on each keyword relative to all keywords across Google.
· What is the trade-off between keyword search demand and competition?
Higher the traffic earned, better are your chances of earning natural links from visitors. BUT High traffic keywords are often very competitive, even when they are low in relevancy. The easiest keywords to rank for are those with limited traffic potential and audiences with very specific needs. AND Poor conversion rates limit the immediate financial value of high traffic strategies.
· How can you assess keyword competition? What are some of the ways and which tools can be used? (Google Trends?)
-through Google Trends
Identify seasonal trends, then create (and promote) content at the RIGHT time! ...
AVOID "keyword unicorns" by checking for data-skewing popularity spikes. ...
Find relevant topics that are trending RIGHT NOW...then capitalize on them. ...
Use Google Trends data to help plan your content calendar.
· What is the difference between a fat-head and a long-tail keyword? Know with examples.
Long-tail keywords are longer and more specific keyword phrases that visitors are more likely to use when they're closer to a point-of-purchase or when they're using voice search.
The "fat head" keywords are those super-popular keywords that get the highest search volume. These are words that directly describe your company, like "sporting goods" or "children's toys. (simple one or two words)
· What are the trade-offs in choosing long-tail keywords over fat-heads? Review your in-class activity on identifying relevant keywords for Fairfield.edu.
Firstly, competition for many fat-head keywords is vast. Just think how many shoe shops, shoe manufactures and even shoe bloggers are all battling to rank highly for 'shoes'. Long-tail keywords also allow you to get super specific and further refine search intent to drive high-quality traffic.
Both fat-head and long-tail keywords can be good for your business.
· How do companies use the current rankings of their specific webpages in deciding to optimize them for better search engine rankings?
Make link building a priority. As one of the top ranking factors for Google, links are critical to improving your search engine ranking.
see what keywords are ranking higher
· How do search engines determine if your webpage is a relevant match for a searched keyword?
Google "reads" a website to determine its content, structure and link profile, from there it'll determine the relevance that a website holds for any given search term. As such, ensuring that your website is optimized for priority search terms can result in higher rankings, traffic and conversions.
· What are some of the on-site SEO elements that can be optimized for a superior search ranking?
Title Tag. ...
Meta Description. ...
Header Tags. ...
SEO Writing. ...
Keyword Cannibalization. ...
main content, anchor text, URL
· How would you optimize the following on-site elements for better search rankings: URL, title tag, header tag, main content, images, file names, and anchor texts?
change keywords in these places
· How does optimizing header tags for relevant keywords serve the dual purpose of UX and SEO?
Header tags are used to separate headings and subheadings on a webpage. They rank in order of importance,
Header tags improve the readability (UX) and SEO of a webpage.
· What is keyword stuffing?
a search engine optimization technique, considered webspam or spamdexing, in which keywords are loaded into a web page's meta tags, visible content, or backlink anchor text in an attempt to gain an unfair rank advantage in search engines.
refers to the practice of loading a webpage with keywords or numbers in an attempt to manipulate a site's ranking in Google search results
· What are black-hat SEO practices and how do they impact websites and their SEO efforts?
a disapproved practice that nevertheless could increase a page's ranking in a search engine result page (SERP). These practices are against the search engine's terms of service and can result in the site being banned from the search engine and affiliate sites.
· What is anchor text? How does optimizing it for relevant keywords help?
indicating topic relevance but beware of over optimization
refers to the clickable words used to link one web page to another.
· Define Keyword Mapping. Why is it important?
the process of linking keywords to specific website pages with the overall goal of providing a framework of where you want certain keywords to live on your site.
the process of assigning relevant keywords to the different pages on a website based on thorough keyword research. It's an important aspect of on-page search engine optimization that will allow search engines to see the page's relevancy based on a user's search.
· How is keyword mapping done through the sitemap of a website?
the process of assigning or mapping keywords to specific pages on a website based on keyword research. Based on your mapping process you are able to then make specific on page seo recommendations to help make the page more relevant to the mapped keywords.
· What is keyword cannibalization?
means that you have various blog posts or articles on your site that can rank for the same search query in Google. Either because the topic they cover is too similar or because you optimized them for the same keyphrase.
what happens when you have multiple pages on your website that all target the same keyword.
· What are the two broad criteria that search engines use in deciding to rank a particular webpage?
-relevance and quality
search engine's determine a webpage's popularity by examining its backlinks or its inbound links
-higher number of backlinks signal popularity
· What specific criteria does a search engine use in assessing a webpage's quality?
# of links from other webpages- webpage quality
accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency, and coverage.
· Which Google platform can be used to test your website's loading speed?
Search Console (Core Web Vitals report) PageSpeed Insights. Chrome DevTools
· What are meta-descriptions and snippets? How does a search engine use them in rankings?
· What do you mean by Bounce Rate?·
a metric that measures the percentage of people who land on your website and do completely nothing on the page they entered. So they don't click on a menu item, a 'read more' link or any other internal links on the page.
· What kind of website content gets a higher ranking from a search engine?
relevant & quality
> # of links signals popularity to search engine
good quality links (original, credible, unpaid, relevant)
the content of the website should be unique and relevant to the website; this is what all the Search Engines look for'Content is the King', it is rightly said as the ranking of the website is dependent on the content of the webpage. When the user searches for a particular content, the content displayed by the website should be relevant and helpful to him to offer him/her good experience
· If some of your webpages have duplicate content and you want to avoid keyword cannibalization, how do you inform the search engine?
You simply need to change how you develop your strategy and assign keywords. It's much easier to adjust your keyword strategy than to develop a new one from scratch.
· What is GSC? How does it help digital marketers?
Google Search Console
this tool not only saves you money because it's free but it is also a great tool to maintain, monitor and - more importantly - troubleshoot your site's performance in Google's search engine results - the Holy Grail of all SEO and digital marketing campaigns.
· Which other on-site SEO factors can hurt a website's rankings?
You Are Busy Creating Lots of Low Quality Links to Your Site. ...
Your Site Has Bad Redirects. ...
Your Site Has Duplicate Content. ...
You Have Recently Updated Your Title Or Meta Tags. ...
You Have Recently Made Changes In Content. ...
You Have Incorrectly Used Noindex tag, Robots. ...
Your Site Is Getting Lots Of Low-Quality Traffic
· How does poor mobile optimization of your website hurt SEO?
when you don't have a mobile-friendly website, it hurts both your SEO and your audience's perception of your business. In fact, 52% of users are less likely to engage with your company again due to a bad mobile experience.
· What is location search? What is a local pack? How does it help with SEO?
often called Local SEO (search engine optimization), is a type of online/digital marketing that businesses engage in to reach local markets by showing up in the local results when their target customers go online and search for things.
The Local Pack is the section in Google search results pages that displays businesses relevant to the searcher's geographical location. It is geared toward users searching for specific services or products near them.
Name some SEO algorithms launched by Google in the past.
PageRank (PR) is an algorithm used by Google Search to rank web pages in their search engine results.
· What is a knowledge graph?
a database in Google that collects millions of pieces of data about keywords people frequently search for on the World wide web and the intent behind those keywords, based on the already available content.
· What are the specific goals of a digital marketer under off-site SEO?
improve popularity of one's website on other sites
· What are the two big criteria that a search engine uses to determine the popularity of a website?
> # of links signals popularity to search engine
good quality links
-relevance and quality
Identify some specific black-hat off-site SEO practices
posting your link on blog forums , creating something artificial and linking it back to your site, creating another website to link your links
· What is a link? What are the different types of links? What is a backlink?
a way for users to navigate between pages on the internet.
editorial links, manual links, manufactured links
backlink-a link created when one website links to another. Backlinks are also called "inbound links" or "incoming links.
· Which client-side coding language is used to create links between webpages?
What is the difference between a link text (or anchor text) and a link URL
Anchor text is the clickable text in a hyperlink. ... Links without anchor text commonly happen on the web and are called link URL. Different browsers will display anchor text differently, and proper use of anchor text can help the page linked to rank for those keywords in search engines.
What are inbound links, outbound links, paid links and internal links?
inbound- link coming from another webpage bringing a user to your website
outbound- link leading to another webpage from yours
paid- paid for links, sponsored
internal- linking within your own website from one content to another page
· Why is it important to have both inbound and internal links for a website?
inbound links signal your popularity and credibility to a search engine
internal links provide a better UX
· When do websites use the "Nofollow" attribute in HTML?
-search engines consider links to a site as an endorsement
-think about who you want as your endorsers
-also think about who you will endorse
-if you do not want to endorse, you tell the search engine "nofollow" through HTML
· How do the "Nofollow" and "Dofollow" attributes used on a webpage signal endorsement to a search engine? What is the default for social media backlinks?
"Dofollow" - you endorse link
Nofollow" - do not endorse or support with the link
List some sources of information for SEO trends and current practices that a webmaster can use to improve off-site SEO
Link Building is King.
Harness that Social Media Power.
Add an RSS Feed Subscription Box.
Don't Shy from Blog Commenting.
Guest Posting is Still Hot.
Forums Posting Is a Thing.
Incorporate Videos and Images.
1 search engine guidelines
2. career SEOs
3. correlational data- observed from millions of succesful websites
· What constitutes a link profile?
list of backlinks
-higher # of backlinks signal popularity
Under what circumstances can a webpage rank above a competitor's webpage on the SERP despite having a fewer number of backlinks? Know with example
-search engines use both domain level and page level metrics
-have to look at if the domain as a whole website has more or less backlinks
· How do search engines assess a website's link profile? (see popularity metrics)
1. total # of backlinks (more=more popular)
2. quality of backlinks- related/relevant/experts
3. anchor text
4. link neighborhood- spam websites
5. link freshness- new backlinks
6. link diversity
7. social sharing
high link quantity- low quality
high quality links- not scalable
· What are the three types of earned links? Which of these are valued more by a search engine?
editorial- pure endorsements, they genuinely like your content
manual- earned through direct efforts
manufactured - manufactured by a webmaster without any third party approval (back linking to one's website under an open comments section on a blog)
-best to avoid manufactured links (lowest value to search engine)
-highest value: editorial links
-manual links- still have some value to search engine but not as high as editorial links
· How can a website obtain editorial links?
creating high quality, linkable content
-conducting outreach to increase the volume of webmasters linking to your content.
· Give some examples of manual links.
check whether the directory you are submitting to is associated with bad link neighborhoods
-earned through direct efforts
· Why should manufactured links be avoided?
there is no third party approval
e.g. no approval, blog comment
· What do you mean by linkable content? Give examples.
linkable content is something people will post/link back to on their website. Infographics, resource guides, heavily researched articles, demonstrations, and tutorials can all be different forms of linkable content.
Tutorials, podcasts, demos, eBooks, resource guides, white papers, detailed infographics, case studies and even websites are examples of linkable content
What is content marketing?
Creating and distributing relevant and targeted material to attract and engage an audience, with the goal of driving them to a desired action
-good, appealing content (content that people are already searching for)
-distribute content (email, papers, social media)
-leading from content to conversion
· Which platforms can you use to analyze your off-site traffic?
Moz Keyword Explorer
Don't forget to review your SEO concepts sheet to fully grasp SEO (on-site + off-site aspects together)
· What is SEM? Why do digital marketers prefer it over online advertising methods?
SEM- Search Engine Marketing
-SEM drives more new website traffic than any other online advertising method.
-No other advertising method enables a more precise targeting of "ready to purchase" consumers
-using SEM a site owner can measure the effectiveness of a campaign more reliably than any other method of advertising
How do consumers, advertisers and search engines come together in paid search marketing to benefit from one another? Revisit the Bart and Darrell example.
Search engine marketing is the practice of marketing a business using paid ... Advertisers bid on keywords that users of services such as Google and Bing might ... These ads, often known by the term pay-per-click ads
What is the PPC advertising model? What is the difference between an impression and a click?Which of these is charged for by Google under the PPC model?
-Pay Per Click: an advertiser does not have to pay for their AD to show up in the sponsored section of the search results.
impression: a count of the total number of times digital advertisements display on someone's screen within the publisher's network.
click: a marketing metric that counts the number of times users have clicked on a digital advertisement to reach an online property.
*only have to pay Google if someone actually clikcs on the
· What criteria does Google use to rank paid search ads?
Ad Rank is calculated using your bid amount, your auction-time ad quality (including expected clickthrough rate, ad relevance, and landing page experience),
*QUALITY SCORE (Expected CTR, AD relevance, LP experience) & BID AMOUNT
· How do advertisers get ad space for their paid search ad on a SERP?
not just based on bidding, has to do with clicks (quality)
-advertisers bid for keywords- the bid is the max amount they are willing to pay for a click from a searcher who's searched for that keyword.
-the winning bid gets the best locations on the SERP for searchers on that keyword.
· What is the specific bidding mechanism used by Google to rank paid search ads called?
-Google uses a calculated metric called Quality Score along with your bid Amount to determine rank
· Why is the actual CPC usually lower than the maximum CPC bid by an advertiser? What is second-price auction?
second price auction- depending what the 2nd advertiser offers, Bidders submit written bids without knowing the bid of the other people in the auction. The highest bidder wins but the price paid is the second-highest bid.
· What is CPA bidding? How is it different from CPC bidding? Why is CPA generally higher than CPC?
Cost per Acquisition
-advertiser only pays for the conversion and not just the click
-higher bc supported by a sufficient history of conversions
CPA- cost/# of conversions
· What are the structural elements of an ad under paid search?
1. final URL
5. AD Extensions
· What are the most current character limits for headlines and descriptions in Google Ads? How many headlines does Google allow? Revisit the in-class activity on writing a paid search ad for Kind bars.
The character limit for Google Text Ads are currently 30 for Headlines (of which you have the option to use 3), 90 for Description Lines (of which you have 2), and 15 for your Ad Path (of which you can use 2). In total you have the option of using 300 characters.
· What is the difference between display path and destination (or final) URL in a paid search ad?
a display URL is the green URL that appears directly below your ad headline on search engine results pages. It typically resembles your site's homepage URL, but it's not hyperlinked. A final URL, aka the post-click landing page URL, is the actual web address of the page people reach when they click your ad.
· What are Ad Extensions? Know some examples.
additional pieces of information that expand your advertisement to make it more useful to users.
A feature that shows extra business information with your ad, like an address, phone number, store rating, or more webpage links.
· What are the three broad principles that should guide your ad copy design?
1. keywords for relevance- CTR's improve if keyword being searched for is in the AD
2. unique value proposition (UVP)
3. call to action (CTA) "get a quote "
· How would you convey your UVP through a paid search ad?
a simple and refined statement that is meant to convey the value of your product or service to a prospective customer.
· How do the CTAs used in paid search ads improve CTRs? Know some CTA examples.
CTAs influence clicks, which in turn drive conversions. This makes CTAs not only a key factor in maximizing CTRs, but optimizing conversion rates as well.
· What are shopping ads? How are they different from paid text ads?
Although shopping and text ads appear on the same page of search results, there are some key differences to how they are managed. While text ads come with a high degree of flexibility around landing pages, ad copy, headlines, and keywords to bid on, shopping ads are a bit more rigid.
Google text ads allow you to advertise both your products and services as search results. These are the ads you see without images, but offer additional ad extensions. This allows the advertiser to show more content and more chances to call out potential promotions and unique sales points.
Google Shopping ads are the ones you see showing images. They appear most commonly at the top of the SERP and also have a dedicated tab. As we mentioned, you won't be able to bid on specific keywords, but by submitting optimized feed with detailed & accurate titles descriptions, and a negative keywords list you can still influence who is finding your ads.
· What are Google map ads and call only ads?
Advertising on Google Maps is a powerful way to attract nearby customers. If you run a local business, ads on Maps make it easy for people to get to your location.
When a user clicks a call-only ad, they're not taken to a landing page; instead, a small window pops up and prompts them to place a call to whichever business placed the ad. That's it—two clicks and they're on the phone with you.
· What are dynamic search ads? Which websites benefit the most from using these?
Dynamic Search Ads - advertisers turn over some control to Google. (Dynamically generate final URL, Headline, Display URL)
deal for advertisers with a well-developed website or a large inventory,
· What is remarketing? Does Google Ads provide an option to retarget consumers using this method for paid ads?
a way to connect with people who previously interacted with your website or mobile app.
Google Ads offers diverse website retargeting, allowing you to target specific URLs with advanced customization. ... You can even create dynamic audiences of people who've interacted with specific products on your site, or have given you their email address and customer information in the past. So yes.
· What role does A/B testing play in translating CTAs to high CTRs? How do advertisers test their ad copies for effectiveness in terms of CTRs?
A/B testing is a powerful strategy used mostly by marketers to determine the overall effectiveness of their ad campaigns, websites, emails, and content. The goal, of course, is to bring in more customers, but there has to be a balance between being promotional and personal.
-can see which CTA to change , to see which one has a higher CTR
· Why should an advertiser test mobile optimization for the paid search ads?
-poor mobile optimization
-low purchase intent
-alternate mobile conversion
· What all criteria can advertisers select in Google Ads (or AdWords) to show their ads to particular consumers?
1. the search phrase entered
2. other characteristics of search such as the searcher's location, device used for search and the time of day for that particular search.
· What are the different keyword selection options available for an advertiser in Google Ads?
1. exact match (wakeboards for sale)
2. phrase match (wakeboard sale)
3. modified broad match (+ wakeboard sale)
4. broad match (wakeboard fails)
5. negative keywords (dangerous wakeboards)
· What is an exact match? How is it defined?
the Google keyword match type that allows you to show your ad when a searcher types the exact word or phrase you are bidding on.
· What is a broad match and a phrase match? Know with examples.
Phrase match lets you specify an exact phrase that must be in a searcher's query for your ad to appear. It lets you hone in on your intended audience more than the broad match type, but isn't as restrictive as exact match. To set a keyword to phrase match, put quotation marks around it.
· What is a modified broad match? What sign does Google Ads require in order to define a keyword as a modified broad match?
a new feature that lets you create keywords that are more targeted than broad match, yet have a greater reach than phrase or exact match. With modified broad match, you put a plus sign (+) in front of one or more words in a broad match keyword.
· What are negative keywords? When should an advertiser use them?
Use negative keywords when you want to ensure that your ad doesn't show for a particular word. By preventing your ad from showing on irrelevant searches, you save money on wasted clicks and create more opportunities for it to display on searches that are relevant and could lead to conversions.
· How does consumer reach and targeting vary as an advertiser picks broad match versus an exact match for his/her keywords?
exact match is consumers directly looking for that and will buy it more likely
broad match is not targeted consumers
· What other selection factors (besides keyword match types) does Google Ads provide for showing a sponsored or a paid search ad to a consumer?
2. device type
· How should online advertisers go about keyword research for their paid search ads?
do hw on keywords, which are top ranked keywords?
he starting point for keyword research should be the website landing page(s) that your ads will be linking to. Begin by scanning each page and harvesting relevant keywords from the text.
-Google's keyword planner
· What are branded keywords? Should a company sponsor paid search ads for its own brand name? Why or why not?
-most companies earn top organic rankings for their brand names
-yes they should, when in doubt, test it! usually very cheap for ads on company brand name
· How is the Google Ads account structured in terms of ad campaigns, ad groups, ads, and keywords?
Google Ads is organized into three layers: account, campaigns, and ad groups. Your account is associated with a unique email address, password, and billing information. Your campaigns have their own budget and settings that determine where your ads appear. Your ad groups contain a set of similar ads and keywords.
· What are the different campaign types an advertiser can select from in Google Ads?
search network only
display network only
search network with display select
· What are the different bidding strategies available to pick from in Google Ads?
manual: maximum CPC or CPA for each keyword
automatic: machine learning algorithm to optimize a particular outcome.
· Define an ad group. What makes ad groups unique under the Google Ads account structure?
(come below Ad campaigns)
-a collection of ads within a campaign that correspond to a group of related keywords
-can analyze ads within ad groups
-analyzing keyword performance
-don't forget other search engines, even though Google is the biggest
video, image, and text ads that appear on websites
· What is a Banner Ad? What is a roadblock? What is HPTO?
banner ad- refers to the use of a rectangular graphic display that stretches across the top, bottom, or sides of a website or online media property. ... Banner ads are image-based rather than text-based and are a popular form of online advertising.
roadblock-are used to eliminate competitors from the playing field
HPTO- Home Page Take Over, This is where an advertiser is paying for the value of being associated with the websites brand, as well as the ads which are actually run.
· What are some of the key differences between paid search ads and display ads?
display ads use a push approach
search ads use a pull approach
· Who are the key stakeholders in online or display advertising?
· What is a Display Network (DN)? What functions does a DN perform between advertisers and publishers?
(a party like Google helps find different connections with publishers for ADs)
-consists of a group of online publishers (typically media websites) that agree to a set of advertising standards dictated by the company managing the AD network.
*DN dictates ad sizes allowed to be displayed on publisher websites
*DN coordinates which ads are displayed on which publisher websites and at what time
*DN charges the advertisers to run ads on its affiliates in the network
*DN pays a portion to publishers to run ads on their sites
· What is the role of advertisers and what role do publishers play in online advertising with DNs?
advertisers: create and upload ads that meet some standard specs to the DN, Manage their ad budgets on the display ad platform
publishers: must create an account with the DN, must fit the specs dictated by the ad network, correctly sized ad spaces set aside for ads
· How do advertisers pay for an ad spot under display advertising? What different bidding formats do advertisers use?
ad networks use a bidding system- similar to search engine ad placements
-multiple bidding formats to use (CPC, CPA, CPM)
· What is CPM? What is the difference between CPC, CPM, and CPA bidding? Know how to calculate each.
CPM: cost per mille, you pay for every 1,000 times your ad is shown on a publisher website
-follows traditional advertising payment method
CPC: paid search advertising, cost per click, user clicks on AD
CPA: cost per acquistion, there is a conversion, user buys product
· Can two advertisers use different bidding methods for a same spot (e.g. CPM and CPC)? If so, how does a DN decide as to which advertiser wins or gets the spot?
-yes, advertisers may be bidding using different methods
-DN's need to be able to compare bids to determine the highest bid
-DN's not only use the bid amount but also track CTR's of advertisers for comparisons
· What is Ad Targeting?
too many variables outside an advertiser's knowledge and control to create perfect ad targeting
-consumer was interested but did not notice ur ad, placed at bottom, consumer was not interested
-targeting allows showing the right ad to the right consumer at the right time and in the right context
· How do you target a consumer in Google Ads?
What are the different targeting methods available in Google Ads?
audiences: targets people based on interests
(in market audiences- ppl actively researching a product category)
retargeting/re-marketing- ppl who have previously visited the advertisers website
content- which websites would an advertiser like to see their ads on (placement, keywords, topics)
How does Google Ads target consumers based on their interests under its "Audiences" feature?
audiences: targets people based on interests
(in market audiences- ppl actively researching a product category)
What comes under "demographics" and "content" aspects of Google Ads?
Demographic information examples include: age, race, ethnicity, gender, marital status, income, education, and employment.
· Are there any downsides to hyper-targeting?
-potential # of impressions or reach goes down
-the final targets who actually see the ad may not convert
· How should an advertiser go about a mobile display ad in Google Ads?
Google mobile advertising helps you reach customers when they're on the go. ... it counts, with text-based search ads, graphic display ads, YouTube video ads, ... websites and apps, your mobile ad can show up where your customers are.
· What are the three broad factors an advertiser should take into consideration while designing a display ad?
1. attract attention (banner blindness)
2. communicate your value proposition
3. invite action (CTAs)
· What is remarketing? How do remarketed ads increase conversion probability?
repeat exposures, higher message recall, greater conversion probability
· Which consumers make good candidates for remarketing? What are the disadvantages of remarketing?
everyone that has visited any page on the advertiser's site.
-anyone that has visited only the advertiser's homepage
-visitors that did not make a purchase
-visitor's that added an item to the shopping cart
-customer's that made a previous purchase
-visitors to site usually 30-90 days
-while re-marketing, a company's ads should not show too often
· What is dynamic remarketing? How is it different from static remarketing?
dynamic- personalized ads are dynamically generated for each individual based on shopper behavior
static- a small group of fixed ads are created and served to groups of people depending on the page they visited on your site
· How would you calculate your ROAS for online advertising? What role does A/B testing play here?
ROAS equals your total conversion value divided by your advertising costs.
How would you ensure that your display ads are consistent with your landing page experience?
1. tout the same value propositions
2. use similar calls to action
3. enact the same design elements (color scheme, characters, fonts, imagery)
· What platform do publishers use to connect with the Google Display Network (GDN)?
What is Email Marketing (EM)?
a structured systematic process that is one of the most successful channels for delivering highly relevant marketing communications to targeted subscribers
What is Spam?
unsolicited or bulk email that consumers did not ask for (A consumer decides what is spam for him/her)
Why is email one of the most important digital marketing channels?
while digital landscape keeps evolving email has remained steadfast the # of email accounts worldwide keep growing, an email lands straight into a consumer's inbox
What are the three basic steps involved in EM?
1. cultivate a list of email addresses (opt in)
2. optimize email content to maximize consumer response and ROI
3. ensure that company emails arrive smoothly to a receipt's inbox (working with spam filters)
What are spam filters and what do they do?
built in features of email clients that block emails with features such as image/text imbalance, too much formatting-all caps, atypical attachments, obscene terms-free $, crazy
What do you mean by email list capture? Know some methods that companies use to capture consumer emails.
your business collects emails with the goal of turning those people into customers. Standard email collection would involve getting random emails, but email capture focuses on collecting emails from people with higher odds of becoming customers.
ex. offer promotion, collect at trade shows/other events, free tutorial
What is the difference between opt-in and opt-out? Is one strategy (pull vs. push) better than the other? Why?
- allow opt in rather than opt out!
Opt IN is when someone actually gives you permission to add them to your email list; opt OUT is when you assume that it's OK for you to send them email unless they tell you to stop.
-opt in is pull and opt out is push (opt in better)
What is the difference between single and double opt-in? What are the pros and cons of each?
A single opt-in is a one-step process and only requires a person to enter their email address one time in the signup box on a website. No confirmation is required, and they immediately become a subscriber. A double opt-in involves a two-step process where a person first enters their email in the signup box, and then must click on a link in a confirmation email
build a large list quickly (pro)
no contact leakage (pro)
potential for low quality, unengaged subscribers (con)
more time spent on list maintenance (con)
higher risk of spam complaints and lower deliverability (con)
cleaner list (pro)
more active, engaged database (pro)
slower list growth (con)
potential for contact leakage (con)
Why would a customer opt-in for EM? List some incentives.
discounts, coupons, online contest, free e book, online webinar
What are some of the recommended ways to build a subscriber list for EM? Which methods should be avoided?
collect email addresses at trade shows/ other events
-include social sharing buttons on emails
-DO NOT buy or share lists, your email list is your IP (intellectual property)
-email lists for sale- faster route to spam traps- not recommended
What is an ESP? Name some ESPs. What are the advantages of using them?
email service provider- help in collecting and storing email addresses
-segmenting email lists
-testing email varieties
What are some good practices for email subscriber management?
stay relevant and prune your list periodically
-quality over quantity
How do companies decide on email content?
what to send? (content type)
whom to send? (mass or broadcast email, segmentation)
when to send?
how often to send?
What are the different types of goal-driven emails? Know with examples.
goal driven- firm perspective
online retail emails goal- conversion
lead generation emails goal- generating a lead
search engine emails goal- brand salience (top of mind for consumer)
online media emails goal- consumer engagement through time spent on the website
b2b email goal- relationship building, lead nurturing
What are the three specific consumer aspects to be kept in mind while designing an email?
How is consumer segmentation and targeting achieved under EM?
-blast email or targeted?
-refresh your segments periodically and reapply relevant segmentation criteria
-past email responses
What is the difference between broadcast and targeted emails? Which is better?
Broadcast emails are scheduled email campaigns that get sent to a large group of contacts at once
A targeted email is a personalized message sent to a particular segment of your mailing list. Such emails are highly customized; they deliver relevant offers which bring value to subscribers.
What are the four different types of emails? Know each one with examples.
1. broadcast emails- sent to a large group of contacts at once
2. transaction emails- "thank you for shopping" "order summery" a purchase was made
3. triggered emails - abandoned cart, past purchase "welcome back"
4. on-boarding emails - welcome offer, connect on social media, download mobile app, refer to friends, explanation of website features
What is the basic anatomy of an email? How should each of these email aspects be designed?
subject line (straightforward, accurate, informative)
email body (CTA, Link to LP)
-match CTA's and LP links
What is the importance of a subject line in EM?
most important part of an email message, first thing that is seen
- subject line has to convince the recipient that the email contains information or messaging that will improve their lives and/or their businesses.
What is the importance of CTAs and proper links to landing pages in EM?
By connecting your landing page and email marketing, you will be able to: Welcome new subscribers to your email list and make a great first impression. Onboard customers with personalized emails that are delivered based on their needs. Nurture quality leads and convert their interest into better sales.
Why is it important to provide your brand's identity (sender's email address) in EM?
use a valid email address rather than a no reply
-want to know who you are talking to as a consumer
-They need to know who you are, what you offer, and why they should choose you over the competition.
What KPIs should be monitored under EM?
open rate (industry avg. 20%)
email CTR (Avg. 3.5%)
Average Order Value
What is the difference between Open Rate, CTR, and Conversion Rate in EM? How are these calculated? What are the industry averages for these KPIs?
Open Rate: # of emails opened/ # of delivered emails x100
(industry avg. 20%)
CTR: # of clicks/ # of delivered emails x100
conversion rate: # of conversions/ # of delivered emails x100
(Avg. 3 to 5%)
What is email AOV?
average order value
revenue/ # of orders
Define List Churn.
monitor database and see who you need to remove off your email list (how many subscribers leave an email list in a given period of time)
What is Unsubscribe Rate?
a metric that measures the percentage of people who opt out from an email list
# of delivered emails/ # of unsubscribers x100
What is Bounce Rate?
percentage of emails that could not be delivered and were sent back to the ESP
# of bouncers / # of delivered emails x100
What do you know about the CAN-SPAM act?
a law that sets the rules for commercial email, establishes requirements for commercial messages, gives recipients the right to have you stop emailing them, and spells out tough penalties for violations. Despite its name, the CAN-SPAM Act doesn't apply just to bulk email.
What is the difference between a hard and a soft Bounce? What is a non-opening email? What do you do about these subscribers from which you receive bounces and non-opens?
hard bounce- permanently rejected due to an invalid/fake email or recipient blocked you
soft bounce- temporarily rejected bc recipients inbox is full, server is down or your email too bulky
non opening- not opened in several months
-remove these subscribers from your list
List some ways of maintaining an active and a current email subscriber list.
-use double opt in
-provide unsubscribe option in every email
-comply immediately with unsubscribe requests
How does CRM work with EM? What do you mean by lead nurturing? What is marketing automation?
CRM- customer relationship management
marketing (generate/nurture leads) --> sales (qualify leads/ convert leads) ---> customer support (train customers)
Lead nurturing is the process of developing and reinforcing relationships with buyers at every stage of the sales funnel.
Marketing automation is technology that manages marketing processes and multifunctional campaigns, across multiple channels, automatically. With marketing automation, businesses can target customers with automated messages across email, web, social, and text.
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