functions of male reproductive system
1. produce gametes (sperm cells)
2. regulate temperature of testes
3. nourish & care for spermatozoa
4. transportation of spermatozoa
5. production of hormones
what two muscles contract in response to temperature extremes (cold) or shock?
dartos muscle & cremaster muscle
what results when a portion of the small intestine protrudes into the inguinal canal?
failure of one or both testes to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops is called?
how are the seminiferous tubules organized within the testes?
contained in LOBULES (300-400 per testis), which are divided by SEPTA
what cells are responsible for testosterone production, and where are they found?
LEYDIG (interstitial) cells; found in loose connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules
location of ductus deferens?
ascends from tail of epididymis through spermatic cord to prostatic urethra, terminates in ejaculatory duct
how are sperm propelled through the ductus deferens to the prostatic urethra?
what are the four parts of the male urethra?
1. prostatic urethra
2. membranous urethra
3. spongy urethra
4. external urethral orifice
what are the three columns of erectile tissue found in the penis?
1. corpora cavernosa (2), forming dorsum and sides of penis
2. corpora spongiosum (1), forming ventral portion of penis
what three exocrine glands secrete material into the ducts of the reproductive tract?
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands
location & function of seminal vesicles?
- located next to ampulla of ductus deferens, joins to form ejaculatory duct which projects into prostate gland
- functions: produce mucous-like secretion that nourishes sperm cells & help in coagulation of semen
location & function of prostate gland?
- walnut-sized gland at base of urinary bladder, surrounds prostatic urethra
- functions: produce thin milky secretion that neutralize acidic urethra and vagina, help in coagulation of semen
location & function of bulbourethral glands?
- small glands located on either side of near membranous urethra
- functions: produce mucous secretion prior to ejaculation, cleanses & neutralizes acidic urethra, lubrication during intercourse, neutralizes vaginal acidity
what are the two hormone secreting cells in the testes, and what hormones do they secrete?
1. Leydig cells - testosterone
2. Sertoli (sustentacular) cells - androgens, estrogens, inhibins
what are the 3 functions of the Sertoli cells?
1. provide nourishment to germ cells
2. secretion of hormones
3. form blood-testis barrier (isolates sperm, which carry surface antigens, from immune system response)
what results from second meiotic division?
four haploid spermatids, which differentiate to become sperm cells