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Beliefs, rituals, communal experience, serves as vehicle for expression of person's spirituality


Broader than religion. The way we orient to the Divine, and make meaning out of our lives. Usually involves relationships and connectedness. May find expression through religion.

self actualization

According to Maslow is the highest level of human functioning.

benefits of religion of religion and spirituality

Good for you, those that are spiritual are happier and healthier than those that are not. They help elder cope w/ demands of life and they experienced less disability and depression from chronic illness. Beliefs acts as a buffer against stress and levels of depression.

spiritual assessment topics

Their religion, sources of strength and hope, and/or concept of God.

Providing support (presence)

Active listener, be empathetic, humble, and committed, stay even when its painful, and be a quiet witness to anothers pain.

Providing support (action)

Refer to hospital chaplain, or their spiritual leader, provide privacy for prayer, comtemplation, etc, assist w/ basic needs, treat w/ dignity, encourage spiritual rituals, and respect religious/ spiritual articles that may significant to patient, provide comfort and link to a more comfortable time

Providing support (word)

Words are powerful, learn to say and create healing responses to patient's verbal expressions of spiritual suffering


Near end of life-level above self actualization. High level emotional response to religious and spiritual life


Transcendent mechanism, major means of coping for some, anchor sustaining life in difficult times. Some level maintained to survive and die in peace

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