history ch 16
Terms in this set (58)
Southern Mexico- Northern Central America
high and low land region
low-dry forests and jungles
who were the Mayans influenced by?
Olmecs from Gulf Coast
Mayan time period?
AD 250- 900
important Mayan Cities?
Tikal- major center in northern Guatemala, Copan, Palenque, Uxmal, Chichen Itza
who were the Mayan cities ruled by? and what were the cities used for?
god-kings and the cities served as centers for religious ceremonies and trade
what did Mayan cities contain? and who were they dedicated to?
Temples, pyramids, monumental agricultural, carvings, palaces, and ball courts which uses were political and religious and the Mayans believed that by playing the cycles of the sun and moon would be maintained and rain would come. All were dedicated to god-kings and rulers
how were the city states linked? what did they trade?
were independent but linked by alliance and trade- flint, feathers, shells, honey, textiles, and ornaments
non but Cacao sometimes served as one
what provided the basis for Mayan life?
growing of Maize, beans, and Squash
on what did the Mayans plant?
raised swamps and hill side top terraces
what did the farming methods lead to?
wealth and social classes
position- hereditary as holy figure
polytheistic, gods of corn, death, rain, and war
gods were associated with four directions and different colors
each day was a living god whos behavior predicated the day
of captured enemies at chichen itza thrown into sinkhole called cenote
calendar, math, astronomy
calendar- 260 day religious calendar with 13 20-day months
second 365 solar calendar consisted of eighteen 20-day months two calendars linked together
number base system- 20
writing system were hieroglyphic symbols or GLYPHS recorded in a book called the CODEX
POPOL VUH- history of the story of creation
mystery. in 800s cities abandoned then the TOLTEC moved in from the north
valley of mexico?
mountain basin 7500ft above sea level served as the home base of several cultures mostly attracted teotihuacan and toltecs
valuable trade item?
first major civilization of central Mexico with trade that went to Central America. the most valuable trade item was obsidian(glass). this city state whose ruins lie just outside Mexico City. it was one of the largest cities in the world. means city of the Gods.
which central avenue was the biggest in Teotihuacan?
Pyramid of the Sun
due either to invasion or conflict among city's ruling classes
who came after the Teotihuacan? and in what year? capital? what were they like? god?
Toltecs in 900- captial:Tula, warlike, war god that wanted blood and human sacrifice,
which Toltec wanted to change the religion?
Topilitzin tried to get rid of human sacrifice and wanted them to worship Quetzalcoatl a feathered serpent.
end of the Toltecs?
1200after Topiltzin was sent to exile on Yucatan
when did the Aztecs arrive and where? and what were they called? describe them.
at the Valley of Mexico in 1200, called Mexica. Poor nomadic people from harsh deserts of Northern Mexico who were fierce and ambitious and worked as hired soldiers
who told the Aztecs to find a city of their own and what did he rule? what did it have to have and where would they find this?
Huitzilopochtli - SON GOD said to look for a place where an eagle perched on a cactus holding a snake in its mouth was found and they found it at a small island called Texcoco and called it Tenochtitlan
who and when did the Aztecs join with? what did they make combined? and with this combination what did they accomplish?
in 1428 with Texcoco and Tacopan and made the Triple Alliance accomplished a large empire stretching from central mexico to the atlantic and pacific coasts and south into Oaxaca
what did the Aztecs base their power on? how was their empire? (the way they ruled)
military conquest and the tribute they gained from conquered subjects. Their empire wasnt strict.
with what did the Aztecs demand tribute? what if they didn't pay?
gold maize cacao beans cotton jade etc and if not paid the Aztecs were brutal they would capture village and slaughter inhabitants
two broad classes in Aztec society?
commoners= merchants artisans soldiers and farmers who owned own land
enslaved persons- captives who did many jobs
what was Tenochtitlan's heart of the city?
market of Tlatelolco
chinampas were used to plot also known as floating gardens
main structure in Tenochtitlan?
Great Temple this pyramid with twin temples at the top one dedicated to the sun god and other to rain god served as center of Aztec religious life.
Tenochtitlan religion? what did they have to worship?
had temples and structures dedicated to different gods of the Aztecs.
Quetzalcoatl in Toltec society? (what was he?)
feathered serpent and pale big bearded man
Aztec religious practices?
centered on elaborate public ceremonies. their festivals varied depending on the god that had that day.
who did the Aztecs most important rituals involve? and what did he want? what did they take from the thing he wanted?
son god Huitzilopochtli who needed the nourishment of human blood where their hearts would be cut out
what were the purposes of Aztecs going to war?
not only going to get new land but to find captives for sacrifice to the son god.
who became the new emperor of the Aztecs?
Montezuma II who weakened the empire and demanded tribute and victims to sacrifice which caused upraise from captives
who were the Aztecs greatest fear?
fair skinned bearded strangers who were the Spaniards who reminded them of the return of Quetzalcoatl
where did the Incas settle?
where did they originally live?
what year did they establish their kingdom?
Valley of Cuzco
lived in high plateau of the Andes.
what did the Incas believe in about their ruler? what did it bring?
that their ruler descended from the sun god inti who brought greatest to the Incan state
who helped build up the Incas' empire?
what year did the empire increase in size and up to where?
what did the Incas' call their empire?
Pachacuti helped conquer all of Peru then moved into neighboring lands
1500s up to western coast of South America
Land of the Four Quarters
what powerful thing did the Incas posses?
what did they offer to the cities they captured?
military but only used when necessary. diplomatic and offered enemies a chance to keep customs and rulers in exchange for loyalty to Incas.
how was the Inca civilization controlled?
divided into units governed by central bureaucracy. economic system to support empire and extensive road system to tie it together.
what was the Incas' official language?
what did the Incas' establish for education?
Quechua, schools to teach incan ways.
how were Incan social groups identified?
Incan government buildings? and where did all roads lead to? (what about this place)
all looked the same to make it apparent.
and all roads led to Cuzco- heart of the incan empire where temples, plazas, and palaces were located.
what talents did the Incas posses?
engineers and stonemasons but had no iron tools and didnt use the wheel
what did Incan government control?
social and economic life. allowed little private commerce or trade.
what was the Incan social system based on?
the Ayllu which was an extended family group undertook tasks too big for a single family.
Incan wanted tribute by?
labor known as Mita for a certain number of days
what was the Incas most important project?
road system symbolized the power of the Incan state
how was history of the Incans passed down?
what did they use to count?
memorization and passed down orally bc they couldnt write.
Quipu- knotted strings used to record data
fewer gods than Aztecs and were mostly nature spirits such as moon stars and thunder.
main god- Viracocha creator god then Inti son god
Incan religious practices?
women assisted priest
llamas used as sacrifice
what was the most sacred Incan shrine?
Temple of the Sun in Cuzco
important religious cities for Incas in Southern Peru?
Cuzco and Machu Picchu both had sun temples
height in Incan empire? and decline?
1500s by Huayna Capac. when he died by smallpox from butterflies the empire split between his sons Atahualpa-Ecuador and Huascar-rest of empire but them Atahualpa laid claim to whole empire and civil war followed but Atahualpa won but after the empire tore apart bc of the war. then spanish arrive taking advantage of incas weakness.