Independence Movements (HOTA)
North American and Latin American
Terms in this set (36)
Battle of Yorktown
1781 - The last major battle of the Revolutionary War which resulted in the surrender of British forces
1743-1826 Jefferson was the 3rd president of the US, principle author of the Declaration of Independence and an influential founding father of the US
Member of the Committee of five to write the Declaration of Independence. Later becomes 2nd President of the United States.
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
Treaty of Paris
(1783) peace agreement that officially ended the revolutionary war and established Britian's formal recognition of the US
An economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
12th, Troops back to Boston, General now leads Boston Government, Shut Down Massachusetts Government, Quartering Act again
1770, street clash between townspeople and Irish soldiers ordered to guard British custom houses.
1776 pamphlet by Thomas Paine that persuaded many Americans to support the Revolutionary cause
Sons of Liberty
A group of colonists who formed a secret society to oppose British policies at the time of the American Revolution
Battle of Saratoga
American victory over British troops in 1777 that was a turning point in the American Revolution.
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
1650 laws that required among other things that all goods to and from the colonies be transported on British ships
1764; lowered tax on molasses to encourage colonists to stop smuggling
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc. to help pay the war debt after French and Indian War
(1767) A set of laws passed by Parliament after Stamp Act crisis, that stated new taxes would be applied only to imported goods, paid at the port of entry. (glass, tea, paper, lead, etc.)
1773; placed a tax on an item to help save the British East India Company; colonists boycotted
Olive Branch Petition
A document sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George III, proposing a reconciliation between the colonies and Britain. It was refused by England.
Jefferson used Natural Rights in the declaration of Independence and he gave his appeal universality by invoking "natural rights" not just British rights.
stated that it was the government's duty to protect life liberty and propert
1766. Acts stating parliment still had supreme control over colonies, and could still make laws
Spanish and Austrian, ruling family, dreamed of uniting Europe under Catholic Rule, stopped by Adolphus, enemies of France/Richelieu.
Agustin de Iturbide
Mexican (creole) army officer who joined forces with the Indians and Mestizos won mexican's independence then claimed himself emperor
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class
A series of administrative and economic measures implemented by the Spanish crown in the eighteenth century to promote commercial and fiscal development in Spain and its colonies.
1823 - an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
(1783-1830) Leader for independence who defeated Spanish forces in South America, liberating Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 
Father Miguel Hidalgo
1810, a creole priest who led revolution for Mexico against the Spanish
Ferdinand VII of Spain
Placed on the Spanish throne after Napoleons downfall, he broke his promises of being a constitutional monarchy and the people revolted against him
People who had Spanish or Portuguese parents but were born in Latin America.
a middle-level status between Europeans at the top; and Amerindians and blacks at the bottom
mestizo that took hidalgo's place; fights but is captured and shot
The restoration of the liberal Constitution of 1812. Although able to sustain a constitutional government for three years, the liberals were defeated when French forces helped Ferdinand VII restore the monarchy.
Plan de Iguala
1821, this plan called for an independent Mexico and equal rule between creoles and penninsulares
Runaway slaves who established communities rich in African traditions throughout the Caribbean and Brazil
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