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abnormal psy

Surveys show that ______ is a common experience for close to half of all children in the US


Nellie is openly hostile toward her parents. she argues with them constantly and will not do anything they say. they can not control her. the diagnosis she is most likely to receive is

oppositional defiant disorder

xavier will not obey his mother. when threatened with punishment, he swears, throws things, and threatens to break everything in the house. his outbreaks seem to be restricted to his parents, but he is almost completely unmanageable. this is an example of

oppositional defiant disorder

a child has repeatedly engaged in shoplifting and in hitting neighborhood pets with rocks. the child frequently is aggressive, and has engaged in an increasing number of fights. the most reasonable diagnosis for this child is

conduct disorder

Bertie is extremely aggressive. she is always fighting with her peers and is frequently very cruel to them. she never tells the truth when a lie will do. her most likely diagnosis is

conduct disorder

a two-year old child is evaluated as "noncompliant" by a preschool teacher. most likely, that child's level of noncompliance at five years of age will be

lower whether child is boy or girl

a child sneaks out of the home every now and then, and goes through the neighborhood breaking lawn decorations and scratching car paint. these behaviors most closely fit which pattern of conduct disorder

covert-destructive pattern

at a parent-teacher conference, a child's parents are astounded to learn that their son has been showing up late for school, despite leaving home with more than enough time to get to school. this behavior most closely fits which pattern of conduct disorder


"that kid is pleasant enough, but will lie about practically anything, even things that do not seem to matter much." this behavior most closely fits which pattern of conduct disorder


perhaps the biggest problem facing school administrators who try to deal with bullying is that

too much bullying to tell who is dangerous

"relational aggression" is a term used to describe a pattern of aggression most common among

girls diagnosed with conduct disorders

Carl is a terrible bully. He is very aggressive and repeatedly takes advantage of his "friends" he will say anything to get his way or try to stay out of trouble. recently he was arrested for vandalism and ended up getting probation. he will most likely be labeled as displaying

juvenile delinquency

a 16-year-old has just been arrested for the third time for shoplifting. he would most likely be labeled a(n)

juvenile delinquents

conduct disorder has most often been associated with


in effect, parents learn to do behavior therapy with their children diagnosed with conduct disorder-- targeting and rewarding desired behaviors, for instance-- in an intervention called

parent management training

Tamara's parents are down on her all the time. when they are not criticizing her, they ignore her. this is an example of

psychological abuse

the least effective way to deal with conduct disorder is

having them live in juvenile training center

"will that program really help? I keep hearing bad things about how kids act once they leave". based on research, the person who said this would be most accurate if she or he were expressing reservations about

having them live in juvenile training center

a preadolescent child has not received a clinical diagnosis participates in a program designed to stop the development of an antisocial pattern of behavior. most likely that program is

prevention program

a child's distracting behaviors occur only in a school setting, and include failure to follow instructions and finish work, answering questions before they have been completed, and a lot of seat squirming and fidgeting. could ADHD be a diagnosis of this child

no because it occurs only in one setting

pat does not follow what the teacher is doing and has difficulty focusing on the task at hand. his behavior in class is disruptive because he can not sit still. he gets poor grades in school. these symptoms indicate


attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is more common in _____ than_____


several decades ago, a child had a great deal of difficulty keeping on task in school. not only did the child frequently roam around the classroom and talk to others, the child frequently squirmed around while at a desk. at the time, the child was diagnosed as suffering from "minimal brain damage", today's likely diagnosis would be


a parent of an infant asks what you would recommend specifically to reduce the chance of the infant developing ADHD. research-based responses would include

make sure child doesn't watch too much tv

the drug Ritalin is classified as a

stimulant drug

the two most common treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder have been

Ritalin and behavioral therapy

recent research suggests that the most effective ways to treat ADHD are

drugs and behavioral therapy

most Ritalin manufactured each year is used by

90% used by Americans

"i'm concerned about Ritalin use; its possible effects on children's growth, and its increasing heart-attack risk in hypertensive adults" an acquaintance worries. your best reply, based on the most recent research is

right to worry, more research needed to quantify risk

a child diagnosed with ADHD displays comorbidity, and receives both stimulant medication and a form of behavior therapy. according to research, the comorbidity is most likely

both conduct and disorders

Compared to white american children, African American and hispanic american children similar levels of activity and attention problems are

less likely to be diagnosed or assessed for ADHD

when asked, a parent says, "why does my kid had ADHD? I guess it is in the genes." given this very limited information, your research-based guess would be that the parent is

white American

a 3-year-old child is wetting the bed at night. the bed wetting apparently is beyond the child's control. the best diagnosis is


joey has been wetting his bed since he was a baby. he is 10 years old now. as a result, he will not stay over at his friend's house or go to camp. his condition is called


a child awakens suddenly to the sound of a bell, and heads for the bathroom. most likely the child is receiving

bell-and-battery technique

a child is awakened during the night, goes to and uses the toilet, and receives a sticker and praise from a parent. later in the week accumulated stickers may be turned in for a highly desired toy. this child is undergoing

dry-bed training

"I knew right after we got home from the hospital that our kid had a problem," the parents said. unless the parent is using 20-20 hindsight, the child's diagnosis most likely is


the most common and successful treatments for encopresis are

behavioral and medical

assume that you are alone in a room with a child suffering from a disorder of childhood. if you did not know what the child's diagnosis was, what behavior of the child's might start to convince you that the disorder is autism

child not responsive to others

when a child with autism says "you want a drink" when he really means that he wants a drink, he is displaying

pronominal reversal

the mockingbird gets its name from the fact that it often imitates the call of other birds, without conveying any particular message. a human who imitates others' speech without really communicating most likely would be diagnosed with


one speech problem displayed by many autistic children is that they repeat everything said to them. this is called


ralphie is autistic and does not like much variation in his life. he puts his toys on a shelf in a particular order and throws a tantrum if his mother moves any of them. any one of several trivial changes in his daily routine can set him off. this is an example of

preservation of sameness

when a child with autism jumps, flaps her arms, twists her hands and fingers and makes unusual, faces the child is engaging in

self-stimulatory behaviors

a person diagnosed with autism listens to a piano piece at a concert. later at home, the person plays the piano piece without the music, and without making a mistake. this behavior is best described as

a "savant"

a person diagnosed with Asperger's disorder is extremely curious about why other people think what they think, and has zero tolerance for others' occasionally illogical thinking. according to one classification system, the term for this individual would be

logic boy

according to one psychological view of autism, the inability to take another's perspective is not developed in autistic children. this ability is called

therapy of mind

most recent research has provided evidence that the primary causes of autism include

brain abnormalties

recent studies show that autistic children are more likely than other children to have abnormalities in which section of the brain


a therapist works with an autistic child, providing praise and a small spoonful of ice cream whenever the child imitates a specific sound the therapist makes. the therapist is using what type of therapy

behavioral therapy

studies of the use of behavioral techniques in the treatment of autism have shown that behavioral techniques can produce

new, more functional behavior

recent work has revealed that the most effective treatment for autism has been the use of

behavioral therapy

a child with autism points to a picture of a fork in order to say, "I want food." this child is using

augmentative communication systems

a child diagnosed with Asperger's disorder learns to make choices, and learns that rules are not necessarily rigid. Facing change and being flexible are other parts of the therapy. most likely, the child is experiencing

cognitive social integration therapy

"what is over there?" asks the child, pointing to a distant object, "Does it belong to you?" the child asks the therapist. the therapist answers the child in detail, and praises the child's efforts at communication. most likely, the child is receiving

child-initiated interactions training for autism

Fred has an IQ of 65 and cannot do school work. he lives on the streets by begging, is usually dirty, and is always hungry. he would probably be labeled

mentally retarded

Quentin is 25, has an IQ of 60, and never did well at schoolwork. however, now he lives on his own, has a job, and is able to perform the routine chores of life. he would not be considered mentally retarded because

he has adequate adaptive behavior

intelligence test results should not be the only things used to determine mental retardation, because intelligence test scores

display general intellectual functioning

if you knew that a child had recently been administered the Vineland and AAMR, you could be reasonably sure the childhood disorder being tested for was

mental retardation

Seth does well in some school subjects. however, the only way that he can read is slowly, one word at a time. he must direct his gaze with his index finger. even with great efforts, he makes many errors and has poor comprehension. this is a description of.

reading disorder

the specific symptoms associated with dyslexia include

great difficulty recognizing words and comprehending as they read

Selina displays normal behavior and intelligence, but she does not seem to be able to explain her actions and intentions as well as you would expect. if the deficit is severe enough, she might be diagnosed with

communication disorder- expressive language disorder

mild mental retardation is most common in which socioeconomic class


about what percentage of those diagnosed with mental retardation fall in the DSM "mild retardation" category


Isabelle was born into a very poor family. her mother and father were barely able to sustain themselves. they had below-average IQs. Isabelle's nutrition and health care were never very good. she is at risk for

mild mental retardation

the most consistent and important difference between retarded and non-retarded people is that a retarded person

learns slower

biological factors appear not to be the most important causes of which level of mental retardation


if one knew nothing more than that the person with mental retardation also had extensive and severe medical problems and physical handicaps, the best estimate of that person''s level of mental retardation would be

sever or profound

most diagnosed cases of Down syndrome are of the ______ type

trisomi 21

Paula is moderately retarded, and has a small head and flat face. she also has short fingers. her condition seems to be

down syndrome

the most common of the identifies chromosomal causes of Down syndrome is


an infant is diagnosed with a biological disorder. as the infant ages, its physical and mental conditions deteriorate steadily so that the infant loses vision and motor control, and at the age of 3, the child dies. most likely, the child was suffering from

trisomi 21

if a pregnant woman wishes to avoid having a child with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), what should she do

not drink alcohol prior to conceiving or during pregnancy

Hanna could not metabolize phenylalanine properly when she was born. she is displaying


an iodine deficiency in the diet of a pregnant woman may lead to a condition in which the baby has a dwarf-like appearance and a defective thyroid gland. this disorder is called


at the end of the year the criteria for remaining in the state school changed, and Henry was simply released into the community. this is an example of


anoxia, one possible source of mental retardation, involved brain damage resulting from

lack of oxygen during or after

in poor inner-city neighborhoods, children sometimes eat paint that is flaking off walls. this can lead to mental retardation because of

lead poisoning

most children with mental retardation live

at home

nations that pioneered "normalization" in the treatment of mental retardation include

Denmark and Sweden

Glenda is in a facility for the mentally retarded. she gets up in her apartment, dresses, and goes to the dining room, where she orders breakfast off a menu. she goes to work in a sheltered workshop. at the end of the day she goes home to her apartment and cleans up for dinner. this arrangement is part of

normalization process

Fredrick is in public school, but he is grouped with lower-IQ children like him. he and his classmates have a specifically designed program that is different from that of the other children in the school. this is most likely an example of

special education

the technique that is often used to teach individuals with mental retardation is


self-help and communication skills of the mentally retarded are improved most often by the use of

behavioral techniques

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