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Bio Unit 6 Vocab

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genetic code
the code stored on DNA, and is made up of nucleotides
RNA polymerase
transcription enzyme that links RNA nucleotides together
Transcription
make RNA from DNA-occurs in nucleus so DNA can go out
mRNA
the RNA thats made from transcribing DNA. It contains the message on how to make protein
tRNA
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
rRNA
makes up structure of ribosome (makes up approx. 80% of RNA in your cells)
Processing
the primary RNA transcript gets cut down by approx. 20% before leaving the nucleus
Splicing
The process of removing introns and rejoining cut ends.
mG Cap
the name of the cap that goes on the RNA after it is spliced
Poly-a Tail
A string of several hundred adenine nucletodies added to the 3' end of the eukaryotic mRNA.
exons
the remaining parts of the RNA that are spliced (after the removal of the introns) to form functional mRNA called (?)
introns
noncoding segments that are cut out when mRNA is processed
translation
read RNA to make a protein- occurs in ribosomes
ribosome
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
Codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
anticodon
a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA
amino acid
basic building blocks of protein molecules
protein
an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
point mutation
changes ONE triplet on DNA, resulting in a single codon change, which may or may not affect the resulting protein
frame shift mutation
one or more nucleotides are added or removed from the DNA, which causes a shuffling and re-organization of every triplet following the mutation. this results in multiple codon changes, and inevitably a different-looking protein.
deletion
1 or more nucleotides are deleted (frameshift mutation)
substitution
1 nucleotide is substituted for another (point mutation)
insertion
1 or more nucleotides are inserted into DNA (either point or frameshift mutation)
missense mutation
a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. this can render the resulting protein nonfunctional.
nonsense mutation
changes an amino acid to a premature stop codon, rendering the resulting protein nonfunctional
silent mutation
code for the same amino acid, and do not affect the resulting protein
epigenome
deciding factor for the gene
lytic
a viral infection that destroys cells
lysogenic
a viral infection that can remain dormant in cells, and may later become lytic.