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genetic code

the code stored on DNA, and is made up of nucleotides

RNA polymerase

transcription enzyme that links RNA nucleotides together


make RNA from DNA-occurs in nucleus so DNA can go out


the RNA thats made from transcribing DNA. It contains the message on how to make protein


transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome


makes up structure of ribosome (makes up approx. 80% of RNA in your cells)


the primary RNA transcript gets cut down by approx. 20% before leaving the nucleus


The process of removing introns and rejoining cut ends.

mG Cap

the name of the cap that goes on the RNA after it is spliced

Poly-a Tail

A string of several hundred adenine nucletodies added to the 3' end of the eukaryotic mRNA.


the remaining parts of the RNA that are spliced (after the removal of the introns) to form functional mRNA called (?)


noncoding segments that are cut out when mRNA is processed


read RNA to make a protein- occurs in ribosomes


small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein


three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid


a region of tRNA that consists of three bases complementary to the codon of mRNA

amino acid

basic building blocks of protein molecules


an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids


change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

point mutation

changes ONE triplet on DNA, resulting in a single codon change, which may or may not affect the resulting protein

frame shift mutation

one or more nucleotides are added or removed from the DNA, which causes a shuffling and re-organization of every triplet following the mutation. this results in multiple codon changes, and inevitably a different-looking protein.


1 or more nucleotides are deleted (frameshift mutation)


1 nucleotide is substituted for another (point mutation)


1 or more nucleotides are inserted into DNA (either point or frameshift mutation)

missense mutation

a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid. this can render the resulting protein nonfunctional.

nonsense mutation

changes an amino acid to a premature stop codon, rendering the resulting protein nonfunctional

silent mutation

code for the same amino acid, and do not affect the resulting protein


deciding factor for the gene


a viral infection that destroys cells


a viral infection that can remain dormant in cells, and may later become lytic.

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