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The cycle that involves pyruvate being converted to Acetyl CoA, regeneration of oxaloacetic acid, and the formation of energy.

32 ATP

The respiration step that results in oxidative phosphorylation


The respiration step that results in 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate molecules

Kreb's cycle

The respiration step that results in 8 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP


results in the release of energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates, or glucose


Respiration produces ____________ ATP per glucose molecule, which is approximately ____________ of the available energy in a glucose molecule.


involves the breakdown of a glucose molecule into two 3 carbon pyruvate molecules and yields 2 ATP.


coenzymes commonly utilized by plants as electron carriers in respiration

Carboxylation phase of the calvin cycle

when carboxylase activity of RUBISCO converts RuBP to into 2 molecules of 3-PGA.

C6H12O6 + 6 O2

The input in respiration that results in 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP

Mitochondrial matrix

Where the kreb's cycle occurs


Where oxidative phosphorylation occurs


Where glycolysis occurs


The waste product when the oxygenase activity of rubisco binds O2 to RuBP

Nitrite reductase

Enzyme found in chloroplasts that reduces nitrite to NH3

Glutamine synthetase

Enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glutamine from condensation of glutamate and NH3

NO3- and NH4+

Primary forms of nitrogen that plants acquire from the soil


Type of RNA responsible for carrying the genetic information to direct protein synthesis


Type of RNA that is a component of cytoplasmic ribosomes


Type of RNA responsible for carrying specific amino acids to the ribosome for attachment to the growing peptide chain


During nitrogen fixation the Fe-protein and Fe-Mo-protein complexes are reduced by electrons donated from this


replaces Guanine as a pyrimidine on RNA


Process of copying a specific section of DNA onto mRNA


The number of amino acids that make-up proteins depending on sequence


Type of RNA involved in the removal of non-coding sections of mRNA prior to protein synthesis.


Process by which polypeptides are synthesized from amino acids according to information encoded on mRNA:


has a high affinity for oxygen and thus prevents excessive oxygen levels from inhibiting the activity of the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzyme.


Double helix structure composed of a ribose sugar-phosphate backbone and connected by N containing purine and pyrimidine bases

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