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Pathology Study Guide #5, irbravox2, isla bravo


inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus


The shared terminal duct of the reproductive and urinary systems - a passageway for both semen and urine


When uterine cells grow outside the uterus


Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterine cervix


Inflammation of the fallopian tubes from the ovary to the uterus


Inflammation of the ovary


Paired glands that resemble unshelled almonds in size and shape are


Inflammation of the vagina


The process in which a large fluid-filled Graafian follicle ruptures and expels a secondary oocyte


A dome-shaped portion of the uterus superior to the uterine tubes


The inner layer of the uterus is called the

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are the most common _____ _____ _____ in women

Name some examples of STDs

Gonorrhea, Herpes, Chlamydia & Syphilis

Ectopic pregnancy

when the pregnancy occurs outside the uterus


The occurrence of Toxemia & HBP during pregnancy

What kinds of bizarre things can be found in a dermoid cyst

Hair, teeth, bone, thyroid, etc

Prostate gland

A single doughnut shaped gland about the size of a golf ball - inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra is the


Inflammation of one or both testes


What viral infection can cause this and sometimes cause sterility in males


Undescended testicle


Soft painless fluid filled in swelling in scrotum


Acute inflammation of the prostate gland

If the prostate gland is hypertrophied, what does that mean

It's enlarged


How many total bones in the adult human skeleton


How many bones in the axial skeleton

Skeletal system

The entire framework of bones and their cartilages together constitutes the


The study of bones


The outer layer of all bones

Compact bone

Few spaces, strongest axial or Bulk of large bone resist


Increased perocity of bone-loss or abnormally fragile

A joint in the anatomical sense

point of contact between two bones

What is the difference between synarthrosis, diarthrosis, and amphiarthrosis

Synarthrosis - immoveable joint;
Diarthrosis - freely moveable joint such as knee;
Amphiarthrosis - limited movement joint such as vertebrae

Purpose of synovial fluid

Reduce friction, absorb shock, supplies oxygen & nutrients


The softening or decalcification in bones


The process by which bones are formed


Inflammation of the bones

What is rickets? When does it occur?

Deficientcy disease when bones do not harden. Mainly seen in children


Inflammation of one or more joints


Inflammation of the bursa. Fluid- filled sac that lies between a tendon or skin

4 types of fractures:

Compound Fractures- Fracture in which the bone is sticking through the skin
Comminuted Fracture- A fracture in which broken, splintered, or crushed into many pieces
Greenstick Fracture- A fracture in which one side of a bone Is broken while the other is bent (seen mostly in children)
Simple Fracture- Break involving the entire width of the bone

Pathologic fracture

Can occur spontaneously when bones are diseased (FREEBIE)


No cartilage formation /dwarfism

Compare and contrast Scoliosis, Kyphosis, and Lordosis

Scoliosis- abnormal curvature in the spine like an "S". Uneven shoulders and hips
Kyphosis- Causing a hunchback or slouching posture. Thoracic/ Kuasimoto
Lordosis- is exaggerated curvature in the lumbar portion of the spine

Paget's disease

What disease causes overproduction of bone in the skull, vertebrae, and pelvis


What is the medical term for a malignant tumor of the bone


Often you see _____ (postmortem) in patients who have died with diseases of the bones and joints


Excessive production of human growth hormone after puberty is called

Islets of Langerhan's / pancreas

Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease dealing with a malfunction of the _____ _____ _____ in the_____


Another term for Diabetes Mellitus


A common complication of diabetes mellitus is

Hyperglycemia / Diabetes mellititus

When glucose, in the absence of insulin, cannot enter the cells and is greatly increased in the blood, the condition is known as

Hypothyroidism (cretinism)

A deficiency in the secretion of the thyroid gland is called


_____ is a disease resulting from over activity of the Pituitary gland

Gigantism (before puberty) & Acromegaly (after puberty)

Excessive growth hormone, result of hyperpituitarism, results in


Hypopituataryism in children

Diabetes Insipidus

Disease characterized by excessive thirst and urination- due to hyposecretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland is called

Diseases associated with this thyroid gland

Grave's Disease, Hypothyroidism, Cretinism, Myxedema, Goiter


Atrophy of the thyroid gland in adults may result in


congenital deficiency of the thyroid hormone known as Thyroxine is not synthesized


A deficiency of thyroxine due to severe hypothyroidism leads to

Bulging eyeballs or goiter (enlargement of thyroid)

What is the manifestation of Grave's disease anatomically


Grave's disease is caused by


enlargement of the thyroid gland


Insufficient _____ in the diet is usually the cause of endemic goiter


The principal manifestation of _____ is tetany

Hyperparathyroidism raises the level of _____ above normal limits

Calcium (In Donna's packet on pg 13 it says it decreases Calcium and raises Phosphorus, BUT on every google site it says raises Calcium)

Addison's Disease / bronzing

Chronic hypoadrenalism is called _____. It manifests itself by a characteristic _____ of the skin

Cushing's disease

Hyperadrenalism which causes an excess of glucocorticoid hormone leads to _____

Cushing syndrome

A disease characterized by obesity and muscular weakness associated with abnormal function the adrenal gland is _____ _____

Acute adrenal insufficiency caused by hemorrhage into the adrenal gland _____ _____ _____. Primarily the result of a _____ infection

Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome / Meningococcal

Skin, Hair & Nails

What comprises the integumentary system


The superficial, thinner portion of our skin is called


Yellow-red or black-brown pigment that contributes to skin color and absorbs UV rays


A yellow-orange pigment that gives egg yolks and carrots their color....necessary for vision


A skin condition that is usually due to hormonal changes after puberty

Oil glands

Sebaceous glands are also known as


What is the condition known as when you are unable to produce melanin


Boils or furuncles; small solitary ones sometimes appear on the skin


The characteristic lesion of syphilis found on the skin

Seborrheic dermatitis

What is dandruff also know as

Melanocytic nevus (mole)

2 FREEBIES- The neoplastic growth of melanocytes causes an excessive production of melanin, resulting in a/an

Malignant Melanoma

The most serious skin cancer (from melanocytes of the epidermis)

Squamous cell carcinoma

Malignancy of keratinocytes in the epidermis

What are some of the functions of the skin

1) Protection for internal organs from the outside environment
2) Protection from the loss of internal fluids/dehydration
3) Maintenance of homeostasis, in terms of body overall temperature regulation
4) Excretion of some waste products via the sebacecuos glands and sweat glands
5) Maintenance of the sites for reception of external cutaneous sensations
6) Serves as a blood reservior
7) The skin does some metabolic functions 8) Synthesis of Vitamin D


Inflammation of the tonsils, lymphnode in throat


These include several types of malignancies of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissue


Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels


A condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system

Hodgkin's disease

A malignant disease of the lymph-node

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

Lymphomas that arise directly from the thymus gland

Swelling, Edema, Emaciation & Metastisize

some postmortem conditions associated with diseases of the lymphatic system-Interference with


Enlargement of the spleen


Immoveable joint


Freely moveable joint (knee)


Limited movement joint (vertebrae)


abnormal curvature in the spine liking "S". Uneven shoulders and hips


In thoracic area; a hunchback or slouching posture


exaggerated curvature in the lumbar portion of the spine

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