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Pathology Study Guide #5 - Final Unit Test

Pathology Study Guide #5, irbravox2, isla bravo
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Endometritis
inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus
Urethra
The shared terminal duct of the reproductive and urinary systems - a passageway for both semen and urine
Endometriosis
When uterine cells grow outside the uterus
Endocervicitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterine cervix
Salpingitis
Inflammation of the fallopian tubes from the ovary to the uterus
Oophoritis
Inflammation of the ovary
Ovaries
Paired glands that resemble unshelled almonds in size and shape are
Vaginitis
Inflammation of the vagina
Ovulation
The process in which a large fluid-filled Graafian follicle ruptures and expels a secondary oocyte
Fundus
A dome-shaped portion of the uterus superior to the uterine tubes
Endometrium
The inner layer of the uterus is called the
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Gonorrhea and Chlamydia are the most common _____ _____ _____ in women
Name some examples of STDs
Gonorrhea, Herpes, Chlamydia & Syphilis
Ectopic pregnancy
when the pregnancy occurs outside the uterus
Eclampsia
The occurrence of Toxemia & HBP during pregnancy
What kinds of bizarre things can be found in a dermoid cyst
Hair, teeth, bone, thyroid, etc
Prostate gland
A single doughnut shaped gland about the size of a golf ball - inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra is the
Orchitis
Inflammation of one or both testes
Mumps
What viral infection can cause this and sometimes cause sterility in males
Cryptorchism
Undescended testicle
Hydrocele
Soft painless fluid filled in swelling in scrotum
Prostatitis
Acute inflammation of the prostate gland
If the prostate gland is hypertrophied, what does that mean
It's enlarged
206
How many total bones in the adult human skeleton
80
How many bones in the axial skeleton
Skeletal system
The entire framework of bones and their cartilages together constitutes the
Osteology
The study of bones
Periosteum
The outer layer of all bones
Compact bone
Few spaces, strongest axial or Bulk of large bone resist
Osteoporosis
Increased perocity of bone-loss or abnormally fragile
A joint in the anatomical sense
point of contact between two bones
What is the difference between synarthrosis, diarthrosis, and amphiarthrosis
Synarthrosis - immoveable joint;
Diarthrosis - freely moveable joint such as knee;
Amphiarthrosis - limited movement joint such as vertebrae
Purpose of synovial fluid
Reduce friction, absorb shock, supplies oxygen & nutrients
Osteomalacia
The softening or decalcification in bones
Ossification
The process by which bones are formed
Osteomyelitis
Inflammation of the bones
What is rickets? When does it occur?
Deficientcy disease when bones do not harden. Mainly seen in children
Arthritis
Inflammation of one or more joints
Bursitis
Inflammation of the bursa. Fluid- filled sac that lies between a tendon or skin
4 types of fractures:
Compound Fractures- Fracture in which the bone is sticking through the skin
Comminuted Fracture- A fracture in which broken, splintered, or crushed into many pieces
Greenstick Fracture- A fracture in which one side of a bone Is broken while the other is bent (seen mostly in children)
Simple Fracture- Break involving the entire width of the bone
Pathologic fracture
Can occur spontaneously when bones are diseased (FREEBIE)
Achondroplasia
No cartilage formation /dwarfism
Compare and contrast Scoliosis, Kyphosis, and Lordosis
Scoliosis- abnormal curvature in the spine like an "S". Uneven shoulders and hips
Kyphosis- Causing a hunchback or slouching posture. Thoracic/ Kuasimoto
Lordosis- is exaggerated curvature in the lumbar portion of the spine
Paget's disease
What disease causes overproduction of bone in the skull, vertebrae, and pelvis
Osteosarcoma
What is the medical term for a malignant tumor of the bone
Malformations
Often you see _____ (postmortem) in patients who have died with diseases of the bones and joints
Acromegaly
Excessive production of human growth hormone after puberty is called
Islets of Langerhan's / pancreas
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease dealing with a malfunction of the _____ _____ _____ in the_____
Hyperglycemia
Another term for Diabetes Mellitus
Artheroscloerosis
A common complication of diabetes mellitus is
Hyperglycemia / Diabetes mellititus
When glucose, in the absence of insulin, cannot enter the cells and is greatly increased in the blood, the condition is known as
Hypothyroidism (cretinism)
A deficiency in the secretion of the thyroid gland is called
Acromegaly
_____ is a disease resulting from over activity of the Pituitary gland
Gigantism (before puberty) & Acromegaly (after puberty)
Excessive growth hormone, result of hyperpituitarism, results in
Dwarfism
Hypopituataryism in children
Diabetes Insipidus
Disease characterized by excessive thirst and urination- due to hyposecretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland is called
Diseases associated with this thyroid gland
Grave's Disease, Hypothyroidism, Cretinism, Myxedema, Goiter
Myxedema
Atrophy of the thyroid gland in adults may result in
Cretinism
congenital deficiency of the thyroid hormone known as Thyroxine is not synthesized
Myxedema
A deficiency of thyroxine due to severe hypothyroidism leads to
Bulging eyeballs or goiter (enlargement of thyroid)
What is the manifestation of Grave's disease anatomically
Hyperthyroidism
Grave's disease is caused by
Goiter
enlargement of the thyroid gland
Iodine
Insufficient _____ in the diet is usually the cause of endemic goiter
Hypoparathyroidism
The principal manifestation of _____ is tetany
Hyperparathyroidism raises the level of _____ above normal limits
Calcium (In Donna's packet on pg 13 it says it decreases Calcium and raises Phosphorus, BUT on every google site it says raises Calcium)
Addison's Disease / bronzing
Chronic hypoadrenalism is called _____. It manifests itself by a characteristic _____ of the skin
Cushing's disease
Hyperadrenalism which causes an excess of glucocorticoid hormone leads to _____
Cushing syndrome
A disease characterized by obesity and muscular weakness associated with abnormal function the adrenal gland is _____ _____
Acute adrenal insufficiency caused by hemorrhage into the adrenal gland _____ _____ _____. Primarily the result of a _____ infection
Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome / Meningococcal
Skin, Hair & Nails
What comprises the integumentary system
Epidermis
The superficial, thinner portion of our skin is called
Melanin
Yellow-red or black-brown pigment that contributes to skin color and absorbs UV rays
Carotene
A yellow-orange pigment that gives egg yolks and carrots their color....necessary for vision
Acne
A skin condition that is usually due to hormonal changes after puberty
Oil glands
Sebaceous glands are also known as
Albinism
What is the condition known as when you are unable to produce melanin
Abcesses
Boils or furuncles; small solitary ones sometimes appear on the skin
Chancre
The characteristic lesion of syphilis found on the skin
Seborrheic dermatitis
What is dandruff also know as
Melanocytic nevus (mole)
2 FREEBIES- The neoplastic growth of melanocytes causes an excessive production of melanin, resulting in a/an
Malignant Melanoma
The most serious skin cancer (from melanocytes of the epidermis)
Squamous cell carcinoma
Malignancy of keratinocytes in the epidermis
What are some of the functions of the skin
1) Protection for internal organs from the outside environment
2) Protection from the loss of internal fluids/dehydration
3) Maintenance of homeostasis, in terms of body overall temperature regulation
4) Excretion of some waste products via the sebacecuos glands and sweat glands
5) Maintenance of the sites for reception of external cutaneous sensations
6) Serves as a blood reservior
7) The skin does some metabolic functions 8) Synthesis of Vitamin D
Tonsillitis
Inflammation of the tonsils, lymphnode in throat
Lymphoma
These include several types of malignancies of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissue
Lymphangitis
Inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
Lymphedema
A condition of localized fluid retention and tissue swelling caused by a compromised lymphatic system
Hodgkin's disease
A malignant disease of the lymph-node
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Lymphomas that arise directly from the thymus gland
Swelling, Edema, Emaciation & Metastisize
some postmortem conditions associated with diseases of the lymphatic system-Interference with
Splenomegaly
Enlargement of the spleen
Synarthrosis
Immoveable joint
Diarthrosis
Freely moveable joint (knee)
Amphiarthrosis
Limited movement joint (vertebrae)
scoliosis
abnormal curvature in the spine liking "S". Uneven shoulders and hips
Kyphosis
In thoracic area; a hunchback or slouching posture
Lordosis
exaggerated curvature in the lumbar portion of the spine