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Chapter 19 Vocabulary

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acidic solution
contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
amphoteric
describes water and other substances that can act as both acids and bases
Arrhenius model
a model of acids and bases; states that an acid is a substance that contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution and a base is a substance that contains a hydroxide group and dissociates to produce a hydroxide ion in aqueous solution
basic solution
contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
Bronsted-Lowry model
a model of acids and bases in which an acid is a hydrogen-ion donor and a base is a hydrogen-ion acceptor
buffer
a solution that resists changes in pH when limited amounts of acid or base are added
buffer capacity
the amount of acid or base a buffer solution can absorb without a significant change in pH
conjugate acid
the species produced when a base accepts a hydrogen ion from an acid
conjugate acid-base pair
consists of two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of an singe hydrogen ion
conjugate base
the species produced when an acid donates a hydrogen ion to a base
end point
the point at which the indicator that is used in a titration changes color
equivalence point
the stoichiometric point of a titration
neutralization reaction
a reaction in which an acid and a base react in aqueous solution to produce a salt and water
pH
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution; acidic solutions have pH values between 0 and 7, basic solutions have values between 7 and 14, and a solution with a pH of 7.0 is neutral
pOH
the negative logarithm of the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution; a solution with a pOH above 7.0 is acidic, a solution with a pOH below 7.0 is basic, and a solution with a pOH of 7.0 is neutral
salt
an ionic compound made up of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid
strong acid
an acid that ionizes completely in aqueous solution
strong base
a base that dissociates entirely into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
weak base
a base that ionizes on partially in dilute aqueous solution to form the conjugate acid of the base and hydroxide ion