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Anatomy and Physiology 2: Chapter 21: The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses
Terms in this set (30)
T/F: Virus infected cells secrete complement to "warn" other cells of the presence of virus
[T/F] Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune response are called antigens.
T/F: A given pathogen will provoke either a cell-mediated response or an antibody-mediated response but not both.
[T/F] Fever is seldom beneficial because it speeds up the cellular metabolic rate and will not allow antigen-antibody reactions to occur.
T/F: Both T cells and B cells must accomplish double recognition: They must simultaneously recognize self and nonself to be activated.
Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
a. three binding sites per antibody
b. incapable of being transferred from one person to another
c. composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
d. carbohydrate structure
composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
Which of the following is NOTa type of T cell?
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.
b. lymph nodes
d. bone marrow
Which of the following is NOT a function of the inflammatory response?
a. disposes of cellular debris and pathogens
b. prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue
c. sets the stage for repair processes
d. replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?
a. NK cells attack cancer cells and virus-infected body cells
b. NK cells attack cells that display abnormal MHC antigens
c. NK cells are present in the blood, spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow
d. NK cells are a type of neutrophil
NK cells are a type of neutrophil
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called _____.
Which of the following is NOT a role of activated complement?
a. prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reactions
c. enhancement of inflammation
d. insertion of MAC and cell lysis
prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reactions
A) are virus-specific, so that an interferon produced against one virus could not protect cells against another virus
B) act by increasing the rate of cell division
C) interfere with viral replication within cells
D) are routinely used in nasal sprays for the common cold
interfere with viral replication within cells
Which of the following determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system will be able to recognize and resist?
a. Memory cell production
b. our genes
c. the type of antigen
d. enzymes present at the time of the invasion
Regulatory T cells ____.
a. release cytokines that increase the activity of cytotoxic T cells and activated B cells
b. may function in preventing autoimmune reactions
c. aid B cells in antibody production
d. decrease their activity a antigenic stimulus decreases
may function in preventing autoimmune reactions
Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.
a. Isografts are between identical twins
b. Xenografts are between individuals of the same species
c. Allografts are between different species
d. Autografts are between two genetically identical individuals
Isografts are between identical twins
Activated T cells and macrophages release ________ to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.
c. interleukin 2 proteins
d. interleukin 1 proteins
Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
b. gastric juice
B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by _____.
a. reducing its size
b. forming a large number of cells that are unlike the original B cell
c. immediately producing antigen-specific antibodies
d. producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells
T-cell activation requires _______.
a. antigen binding, antibody production, and co-stimulation
b. antigen binding and co-stimulation
c. antigen binding and antibody production
d. antibody production and co-stimulation
antigen binding and co-stimulation
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ____.
b. T lymphocytes
c. natural killer cells
d. B lymphocytes
natural killer cells
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
a. it has memory
b. it is specific for a given organ
c. it is systemic
it is antigen-specific
it is specific for a given organ
Innate immune system defenses include ____.
a. T cells
b. plasma cells
c. B cells
Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?
a. haptens lack immunogenicity unless attached to protein carriers
b. MHC proteins are the cell's identity markers
c. Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens
d. Class 1 molecules are built into the plasma membranes of all body cells
Class II MHC molecules appear only on surfaces of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens
Phagocyte mobilization involves _____.
a. monocytes as the most active phagocyte
b. mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
c. diapedesis, during which cells line up against the capillary wall
d. margination, which is the process of white cell movement through the walls of capillaries into injured tissues
mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas
A) is a higher-than-normal body temperature that is always dangerous
B) decreases the metabolic rate of the body to conserve energy
C) production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
D) causes the liver to release large amounts of iron, which seems to inhibit bacterial replication
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
A) occurs in one specific organ of the adaptive immune system
B) is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
C) prevents intercellular communication so that only specific cell types respond to the invader
D) requires exposure to an antigen
is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
a. immunological memory is established by passive immunization
b. the antibodies utilized in active immunity are acquired from another organism
c. active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies
d. A vaccination is an example of the introduction of passive immunity into the body
active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.
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