ENSC 10143 Final Review
Terms in this set (42)
What are the four layers of the atmosphere?
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere
Where does the bulk of the weather occur? Also takes up the most mass of the atmosphere. Most pollutants are found here. Uses PPM units, anthropogenic & anthropogenic ozone (bad ozone), houses GHGs, where greenhouse effect occurs.
What are examples of natural GHGs?
CO2, H2O, CH4
Where is good ozone found? Measured by Dobson units.
Great ocean conveyor belt, sea-to-air heat transfer to higher altitudes
meridional heat transfer
Found in paint/gasoline smells, emission of fossil fuels; primary pollutants
Nox and Vocs
One of the big scientists behind stratospheric ozone discovery who spent 30 years studying ozone, gives the stratospheric ozone its units.
Some of the big scientists behind stratospheric ozone discovery who made a CFC reaction to prove it had the ability to breakup ozone, they did it in a lab.
Rowland and Molina
PSC for short. (-10F). Within vortex: freezes Nitorgen ice crystals with within PSC. The catalyctic reaction that occurs after with these crystals depletes ozone molecules.
Polar Stratospheric Clouds
300-500 DU (thickness of 2 stacked pennies in stratosphere) - should be ZERO in troposphere
normal ozone levels
Halons, halogenated molecules; CFCs (refrigerant, propellant, aerosols; not toxic, not volatile, replaced ammonia), halon bromide
ozone depleting substances
What does NAAQS stand for?
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
What are the 6 pollutants the NAAQS regulates? (In alphabetical order by whole name.)
Carbon Monoxide, Lead, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone, Particulate Matter, Sulfur Dioxide
What was based on the Kyoto Protocol? Only 4 countries have not ratified it. Want to completely phase out CFCs by 2030, has been most effective in reducing GHGs. Without it, ODS temperature change would be at projected 2025 levels.
What types of measurements are Ice cores, sediment cores, tree rings, vegetation-pollen, bones and teeth isotopes?
What types of measurements are air bubbles trapped in ice cores?
The difference of the actual temperature from the "norm"
What are these characteristics of?: small localized range, extensive range that's significantly modified by humans, island dwellers (limited immigration, fewer defenses when probed with diseases, low reproductive success, large easily hunted
species becoming extinct
What are areas in danger of having population of species extinct?
What does it mean to be unique to a specific area or species living in a small localized range?
What is UN REDD?
UN Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation
Why was the UN REDD founded?
villages, towns, city-states, subsistence farming
closed field systems, ploughs, begin industrial revolution
British agricultural revolution
increased use in mechanization, hybridizes seeds, irrigation, fertilization, and pesticides
revolution that began working with transgenic breeds, GMOs
caused by humans
genetically modified organism
conditions that keep a species from overpopulating or extinction
indoor - cookstoves; outdoor - industrial
evenness of population of a species in an area
chlorofluorocarbons; ODS in troposphere. Non-reactive, nonflammable gases and volatile liquids, developed in 1930s as a safe alternative to ammonium which was originally used in refrigeration and spray cans, ubiquitous in industry, part of a group of ODS
liquid water from ground. Water moves up from the soil through evaporation and goes into atmospheric water. From leaves and stem surfaces.
What are the Mineral components?
sand, silt, and clay
texture, crust, compaction, aggregation and structure, water component, frozen surface, organic matter
liquid water heated by the sun into liquid water vapor; part of the hydrologic cycle
air is cooler. As air rises, it condenses and forms clouds; part of the hydrologic cycle
everything from rain, snow, freezing rain, hail, etc.; part of the hydrologic cycle
transfer of land water to oceans. Reason why we damn up rivers; part of the hydrologic cycle
least dense in solid form, most dense in liquid form, most dense at 4 degrees Celsius
What kind of pollutants are these? 6 NAAQS pollutants (minus O3) + CO2, VOCs, NOx, and Mercury
What kind of pollutants are these? Ground Level Ozone (O3) & Peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN)