The fact that the disease Xeroderma pigmentosum developed in the majority of the siblings mentioned in the chapter's case study suggests that..
it has a genetic basis
Normally cells in a body communicate, live, divide, and eventually die in an organized way to keep the body running smoothly. In cancer..
cells divide and accumulate out of control, with various serious consequences
A cancerous tumor is...
malignant clump of abnormal cells which keeps growing
Metastasis is when..
cancer cells spread from a tumor throughout the body
Tumors can deprive normal cells of oxygen. This happens through angiogenesis, which is...
when tumors cause blood vessels from the circulatory system to grow into the tumor, preventing oxygen and nutrients from traveling to other cells
In normal cells, cell division is an orderly process controlled by communication between cells. How are cancerous cells different?
Cancerous cells have lost the ability to correctly communicate, so they divide out of control.
Why do cells need to communicate?
Otherwise, they keep dividing and pile up and lose contact with each other such that they can't do the job in the body that they should.
What do cancer cells do wrong compared to normal cells?
They can't communicate with other cells. They don't die. They don't stop dividing, even when they run into each other
How do signal molecules work in a cancerous cell?
They don't usually work at all.
What is different about the cell cycle in a cancer cell?
The normal checkpoints controlling each phase are ignored.
What is apoptosis?
programmed cell death
In general, how does a DNA or gene mutation cause a problem?
A necessary protein might be overproduced, abnormal, or not produced at all.
Cell division in normal cells is precisely controlled as follows:
Proto-oncogenes urge a cell to divide and tumor suppressor genes stop cell division. The two keep growth from getting out of control.
Mutations in which two gene types can cause the uncontrolled cell division characteristic of cancer?
a proto-oncogene and a tumor suppressor gene
What are a few things you can do to lower your risk of cancer?
Avoid smoking and excessive alcohol use.
Diet and exercise are both considered factors in cancer risk. Exercise is good for just about everything, but what should you eat?
fruits, vegetables, and high fiber grains
How would a doctor use surgery and chemotherapy together to treat cancer?
Surgery removes as much of the cancer as possible and chemotherapy is used to kill off any cancerous cells that may have been missed.
What is in fruits and vegetables that may interfere with cancer formation?
Which of the following are TRUE about the human papilloma virus (HPV)?
-It causes 80-90% of cervical cancers. -There is a vaccine which prevents most strains of HPV. -HPV is more common in developing countries. -The age at which you become sexually active and your number of sexual partners increases your risk of getting HPV.
usually warts: not harmless
Cancer spreading process
small tumor, tumor breaks through basal lamina, tumor enter blood stream, travels to other parts of body, pill up and form new tumors
4 phases of the cell cycle
Mitosis: separate into daughter cells, GAP 1:cell grows, DNA synthesis: the chromosomes replicate, GAP 2: the cell grows and prepares for mitosis
Proto-oncogene gene is...
a gene that encodes for a protein that regulates cell division
a gene that tells the cell to divide in the absence of normal instructions
ABC VW VW ABC
a drug that stops the growth of blood vessels, inhibiting the ability of tumors to attach to the circulatory system and grow